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Full Online Book HomePoemsThe Faerie Queene, Book I, Canto 5
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The Faerie Queene, Book I, Canto 5 Post by :SimonUK71 Category :Poems Author :Edmund Spenser Date :March 2011 Read :968

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The Faerie Queene, Book I, Canto 5

 


CANTO V


The faithfull knight in equall field
subdewes his faithlesse foe,
Whom false Duessa saves, and for
his cure to hell does goe.


I


THE noble hart, that harbours vertuous thought,
And is with child of glorious great intent,
Can never rest, untill it forth have brought
Th' eternall brood of glorie excellent.
Such restlesse passion did all night torment 5
The flaming corage of that Faery knight,
Devizing, how that doughtie turnament
With greatest honour he atchieven might;
Still did he wake, and still did watch for dawning light.


II


At last the golden Orientall gate, 10
Of greatest heaven gan to open faire,
And Phoebus fresh, as bridegrome to his mate,
Came dauncing forth, shaking his deawie haire:
And hurls his glistring beams through gloomy aire.
Which when the wakeful Elfe perceiv'd, streightway 15
He started up, and did him selfe prepaire,
In sunbright armes, and battailous array:
For with that Pagan proud he combat will that day.


III


And forth he comes into the commune hall,
Where earely waite him many a gazing eye, 20
To weet what end to straunger knights may fall.
There many Minstrales maken melody,
To drive away the dull melancholy,
And many Bardes, that to the trembling chord
Can tune their timely voyces(*) cunningly, 25
And many Chroniclers that can record
Old loves,(*) and warres for Ladies doen by many a Lord.


IV


Soone after comes the cruell Sarazin,
In woven maile(*) all armed warily,
And sternly lookes at him, who not a pin 30
Does care for looke of living creatures eye.
They bring them wines of Greece and Araby,(*)
And daintie spices fetcht from furthest Ynd,(*)
To kindle heat of corage privily:
And in the wine a solemne oth they bynd 35
T' observe the sacred lawes of armes, that are assynd.


V


At last forth comes that far renowmed Queene,
With royall pomp and Princely majestie;
She is ybrought unto a paled greene,(*)
And placed under stately canapee, 40
The warlike feates of both those knights to see.
On th' other side in all mens open vew
Duessa placed is, and on a tree
Sans-foy his(*) shield is hangd with bloody hew:
Both those(*) the lawrell girlonds to the victor dew. 45


VI


A shrilling trompet sownded from on hye,
And unto battaill bad them selves addresse:
Their shining shieldes about their wrestes they tye,
And burning blades about their heads do blesse,
The instruments of wrath and heavinesse: 50
With greedy force each other doth assayle,
And strike so fiercely, that they do impresse
Deepe dinted furrowes in the battred mayle;
The yron walles to ward their blowes are weak and fraile.


VII


The Sarazin was stout, and wondrous strong, 55
And heaped blowes like yron hammers great;
For after bloud and vengeance he did long.
The knight was fiers, and full of youthly heat,
And doubled strokes, like dreaded thunders threat:
For all for prayse and honour he did fight. 60
Both stricken strike, and beaten both do beat,
That from their shields forth flyeth firie light,
And helmets hewen deepe show marks of eithers might.


VIII


So th' one for wrong, the other strives for right;
As when a Gryfon(*) seized of his pray, 65
A Dragon fiers encountreth in his flight,
Through widest ayre making his ydle way,
That would his rightfull ravine rend away;
With hideous horror both together smight,
And souce so sore that they the heavens affray: 70
The wise Soothsayer seeing so sad sight,
Th' amazed vulgar tels of warres and mortall fight.


IX


So th' one for wrong, the other strives for right,
And each to deadly shame would drive his foe:
The cruell steele so greedily doth bight 75
In tender flesh that streames of bloud down flow,
With which the armes, that earst so bright did show,
Into a pure vermillion now are dyde:
Great ruth in all the gazers harts did grow,
Seeing the gored woundes to gape so wyde, 80
That victory they dare not wish to either side.


X


At last the Paynim chaunst to cast his eye,
His suddein eye, flaming with wrathful fyre,
Upon his brothers shield, which hong thereby:
Therewith redoubled was his raging yre, 85
And said, Ah wretched sonne of wofull syre,
Doest thou sit wayling by blacke Stygian lake,
Whilest here thy shield is hangd for victors hyre,
And sluggish german(*) doest thy forces slake
To after-send his foe, that him may overtake? 90


XI


Goe caytive Elfe, him quickly overtake,
And soone redeeme from his long wandring woe;
Goe guiltie ghost, to him my message make,
That I his shield have quit from dying foe.
Therewith upon his crest he stroke him so, 95
That twise he reeled, readie twise to fall;
End of the doubtfull battell deemed tho
The lookers on, and lowd to him gan call
The false Duessa, Thine the shield, and I, and all.


XII


Soone as the Faerie heard his Ladie speake,(*) 100
Out of his swowning dreame he gan awake,
And quickning faith, that earst was woxen weake,
The creeping deadly cold away did shake:
Tho mov'd with wrath, and shame, and Ladies sake,
Of all attonce he cast avengd to bee, 105
And with so' exceeding furie at him strake,
That forced him to stoupe upon his knee;
Had he not stouped so, he should have cloven bee.


XIII


And to him said, Goe now proud Miscreant,
Thy selfe thy message do to german deare; 110
Alone he wandring thee too long doth want:
Goe say, his foe thy shield with his doth beare.
Therewith his heavie hand he high gan reare,
Him to have slaine; when loe a darkesome clowd(*)
Upon him fell: he no where doth appeare, 115
But vanisht is. The Elfe him calls alowd,
But answer none receives: the darkness him does shrowd.


XIV


In haste Duessa from her place arose,
And to him running said, O prowest knight,
That ever Ladie to her love did chose, 120
Let now abate the terror of your might,
And quench the flame of furious despight,
And bloudie vengeance; lo th' infernall powres,
Covering your foe with cloud of deadly night,
Have borne him hence to Plutoes balefull bowres. 125
The conquest yours, I yours, the shield, the glory yours.


XV


Not all so satisfide, with greedie eye
He sought all round about, his thristie blade
To bath in bloud of faithlesse enemy;
Who all that while lay hid in secret shade: 130
He standes amazed, how he thence should fade.
At last the trumpets Triumph sound on hie,
And running Heralds humble homage made,
Greeting him goodly with new victorie,
And to him brought the shield, the cause of enmitie. 135


XVI


Wherewith he goeth to that soveraine Queene,
And falling her before on lowly knee,
To her makes present of his service seene:
Which she accepts, with thankes, and goodly gree,
Greatly advauncing his gay chevalree. 140
So marcheth home, and by her takes the knight,
Whom all the people follow with great glee,
Shouting, and clapping all their hands on hight,
That all the aire it fils, and flyes to heaven bright.


XVII


Home is he brought, and laid in sumptuous bed: 145
Where many skilfull leaches him abide,
To salve his hurts, that yet still freshly bled.
In wine and oyle they wash his woundes wide,
And softly can embalme on every side.
And all the while, most heavenly melody 150
About the bed sweet musicke did divide,
Him to beguile of griefe and agony:
And all the while Duessa wept full bitterly.


XVIII


As when a wearie traveller that strayes
By muddy shore of broad seven-mouthed Nile, 155
Unweeting of the perillous wandring wayes,
Doth meete a cruell craftie Crocodile,
Which in false griefe hyding his harmefull guile,
Doth weepe full sore, and sheddeth tender teares:(*)
The foolish man, that pitties all this while 160
His mournefull plight, is swallowed up unawares,
Forgetfull of his owne, that mindes anothers cares.


XIX


So wept Duessa untill eventide,
That shyning lampes in Joves high house were light:
Then forth she rose, ne lenger would abide, 165
But comes unto the place, where th' Hethen knight
In slombring swownd nigh voyd of vitall spright,
Lay cover'd with inchaunted cloud all day:
Whom when she found, as she him left in plight,
To wayle his woefull case she would not stay, 170
But to the easterne coast of heaven makes speedy way.


XX


Where griesly Night,(*) with visage deadly sad,
That Phoebus chearefull face durst never vew,
And in a foule blacke pitchie mantle clad,
She findes forth comming from her darkesome mew, 175
Where she all day did hide her hated hew.
Before the dore her yron charet stood,
Alreadie harnessed for journey new;
And coleblacke steedes yborne of hellish brood,
That on their rustie bits did champ, as they were wood. 180


XXI


Who when she saw Duessa sunny bright,
Adornd with gold and jewels shining cleare,
She greatly grew amazed at the sight,
And th' unacquainted light began to feare:
For never did such brightnesse there appeare, 185
And would have backe retyred to her cave,
Until the witches speech she gan to heare,
Saying, Yet, O thou dreaded Dame, I crave
Abide, till I have told the message which I have.


XXII


She stayd, and foorth Duessa gan proceede 190
O thou most auncient Grandmother of all,
More old then Jove, whom thou at first didst breede,
Or that great house of Gods caelestiall,
Which wast begot in Daemogorgons hall,
And sawst the secrets of the world unmade, 195
Why suffredst thou thy Nephewes deare to fall
With Elfin sword, most shamefully betrade?
Lo where the stout Sansjoy doth sleepe in deadly shade.


XXIII


And him before, I saw with bitter eyes
The bold Sansfoy shrinke underneath his speare; 200
And now the pray of fowles in field he lyes,
Nor wayld of friends, nor layd on groning beare,(*)
That whylome was to me too dearely deare.
O what of Gods(*) then boots it to be borne,
If old Aveugles sonnes so evill heare? 205
Or who shall not great Nightes children scorne,
When two of three her Nephews are so fowle forlorne?


XXIV


Up then, up dreary Dame, of darknesse Queene,
Go gather up the reliques of thy race,
Or else goe them avenge, and let be seene, 210
That dreaded Night in brightest day hath place,
And can the children of faire light deface.
Her feeling speeches some compassion moved
In hart, and chaunge in that great mothers face:
Yet pittie in her hart was never proved 215
Till then: for evermore she hated, never loved.


XXV


And said, Deare daughter rightly may I rew
The fall of famous children borne of mee,
And good successes,(*) which their foes ensew:
But who can turne the streame of destinee, 220
Or breake the chayne(*) of strong necessitee,
Which fast is tyde to Joves eternall seat?
The sonnes of Day he favoureth, I see,
And by my ruines thinkes to make them great:
To make one great by others losse, is bad excheat.(*) 225


XXVI


Yet shall they not escape so freely all;
For some shall pay the price of others guilt:
And he the man that made Sansfoy to fall,
Shall with his owne bloud(*) price that he has spilt.
But what art thou, that telst of Nephews kilt? 230
I that do seeme not I, Duessa am,
(Quoth she) how ever now in garments gilt,
And gorgeous gold arrayd I to thee came;
Duessa I, the daughter of Deceipt and Shame.


XXVII


Then bowing downe her aged backe, she kist 235
The wicked witch, saying; In that faire face
The false resemblance of Deceipt I wist
Did closely lurke; yet so true-seeming grace
It carried, that I scarce in darkesome place
Could it discerne, though I the mother bee 240
Of falshood, and roote of Duessaes race.
O welcome child, whom I have longd to see,
And now have seene unwares. Lo now I go with thee.


XXVIII


Then to her yron wagon she betakes,
And with her beares the fowle welfavourd witch: 245
Through mirkesome aire her readie way she makes.
Her twyfold Teme, of which two blacke as pitch,
And two were browne, yet each to each unlich,
Did softly swim away, ne ever stampe,
Unlesse she chaunst their stubborne mouths to twitch; 250
Then foming tarre, their bridles they would champe,
And trampling the fine element would fiercely rampe.


XXIX


So well they sped, that they be come at length
Unto the place, whereas the Paynim lay,
Devoid of outward sense, and native strength, 255
Coverd with charmed cloud from vew of day
And sight of men, since his late luckelesse fray.
His cruell wounds with cruddy bloud congeald
They binden up so wisely, as they may,
And handle softly, till they can be healed: 260
So lay him in her charet close in night concealed.


XXX


And all the while she stood upon the ground,
The wakefull dogs did never cease to bay,(*)
As giving warning of th' unwonted sound,
With which her yron wheeles did them affray, 265
And her darke griesly looke them much dismay:
The messenger of death, the ghastly Owle(*)
With drery shriekes did also her bewray;
And hungry Wolves continually did howle,
At her abhorred face, so filthy and so fowle. 270


XXXI


Thence turning backe in silence soft they stole,
And brought the heavie corse with easie pace
To yawning gulfe of deepe Avernus hole.(*)
By that same hole an entrance darke and bace
With smoake and sulphure hiding all the place, 275
Descends to hell: there creature never past,
That backe returned without heavenly grace;
But dreadfull Furies which their chaines have brast,
And damned sprights sent forth to make ill men aghast.


XXXII


By that same way the direfull dames doe drive 280
Their mournefull charet, fild with rusty blood,
And downe to Plutoes house are come bilive:
Which passing through, on every side them stood
The trembling ghosts with sad amazed mood,
Chattring their yron teeth, and staring wide 285
With stonie eyes; and all the hellish brood
Of feends infernall flockt on every side,
To gaze on earthly wight that with the Night durst ride.


XXXIII


They pas the bitter waves of Acheron,
Where many soules sit wailing woefully, 290
And come to fiery flood of Phlegeton,
Whereas the damned ghosts in torments fry,
And with sharpe shrilling shriekes doe bootlesse cry,
Cursing high Jove, the which them thither sent.
The house of endlesse paine is built thereby, 295
In which ten thousand sorts of punishment
The cursed creatures doe eternally torment.


XXXIV


Before the threshold dreadfull Cerberus(*)
His three deformed heads did lay along,
Curled with thousand adders venemous, 300
And lilled forth his bloudie flaming tong:
At them he gan to reare his bristles strong,
And felly gnarre, until Dayes enemy
Did him appease; then downe his taile he hong
And suffred them to passen quietly: 305
For she in hell and heaven had power equally.


XXXV


There was Ixion turned on a wheele,(*)
For daring tempt the Queene of heaven to sin;
And Sisyphus an huge round stone did reele
Against an hill, ne might from labour lin; 310
There thirsty Tantalus hong by the chin;
And Tityus fed a vulture on his maw;
Typhoeus joynts were stretched on a gin,
Theseus condemnd to endlesse slouth by law,
And fifty sisters water in leake vessels draw. 315


XXXVI


They all beholding worldly wights in place,
Leave off their worke, unmindfull of their smart,
To gaze on them; who forth by them doe pace,
Till they be come unto the furthest part;
Where was a Cave ywrought by wondrous art, 320
Deepe, darke, uneasie, dolefull, comfortlesse,
In which sad Aesculapius(*) farre apart
Emprisond was in chaines remedilesse,
For that Hippolytus rent corse he did redresse.


XXXVII


Hippolytus a jolly huntsman was 325
That wont in charett chace the foming Bore:
He all his Peeres in beauty did surpas,
But Ladies love as losse of time forbore:
His wanton stepdame loved him the more,
But when she saw her offred sweets refused, 330
Her love she turnd to hate, and him before
His father fierce of treason false accused,
And with her gealous termes his open eares abused.


XXXVIII


Who all in rage his Sea-god syre besought,
Some cursed vengeaunce on his sonne to cast, 335
From surging gulf two monsters straight were brought,
With dread whereof his chasing steedes aghast,
Both charet swift and huntsman overcast.
His goodly corps on ragged cliffs yrent,
Was quite dismembred, and his members chast 340
Scattered on every mountaine, as he went,
That of Hippolytus was left no moniment.


XXXIX


His cruell step-dame seeing what was donne,
Her wicked dayes with wretched knife did end,
In death avowing th' innocence of her sonne, 345
Which hearing, his rash Syre began to rend
His haire, and hastie tongue that did offend.
Tho gathering up the relicks of his smart,
By Dianes meanes, who was Hippolyts frend,
Them brought to Aesculape, that by his art 350
Did heale them all againe, and joyned every part.


XL


Such wondrous science in mans wit to raine
When Jove avizd, that could the dead revive,
And fates expired(*) could renew againe,
Of endlesse life he might him not deprive, 355
But unto hell did thrust him downe alive,
With flashing thunderbolt ywounded sore:
Where long remaining, he did alwaies strive
Himselfe with salves to health for to restore,
And slake the heavenly fire, that raged evermore. 360


XLI


There auncient Night arriving, did alight
From her nigh wearie waine, and in her armes
To Aesculapius brought the wounded knight:
Whom having softly disarayd of armes,
Tho gan to him discover all his harmes, 365
Beseeching him with prayer, and with praise,
If either salves, or oyles, or herbes, or charmes
A fordonne wight from dore of death mote raise,
He would at her request prolong her nephews daies.


XLII


Ah Dame (quoth he) thou temptest me in vaine, 370
To dare the thing, which daily yet I rew,
And the old cause of my continued paine
With like attempt to like end to renew.
Is not enough, that thrust from heaven dew
Here endlesse penance for one fault I pay, 375
But that redoubled crime with vengeance new
Thou biddest me to eeke? can Night defray
The wrath of thundring Jove that rules both night and day?


XLIII


Not so (quoth she) but sith that heavens king
From hope of heaven hath thee excluded quight, 380
Why fearest thou, that canst not hope for thing;
And fearest not, that more thee hurten might,
Now in the powre of everlasting Night?
Goe to then, O thou farre renowmed sonne
Of great Apollo, shew thy famous might 385
In medicine, that else hath to thee wonne
Great paines, and greater praise,(*) both never to be donne.


XLIV


Her words prevaild: And then the learned leach
His cunning hand gan to his wounds to lay,
And all things else, the which his art did teach: 390
Which having seene, from thence arose away
The mother of dread darknesse, and let stay
Aveugles sonne there in the leaches cure,
And backe returning tooke her wonted way,
To runne her timely race, whilst Phoebus pure, 395
In westerne waves his weary wagon did recure.


XLV


The false Duessa leaving noyous Night,
Returnd to stately pallace of Dame Pride;
Where when she came, she found the Faery knight
Departed thence, albe his woundes wide 400
Not throughly heald, unreadie were to ride.
Good cause he had to hasten thence away;
For on a day his wary Dwarfe had spide
Where in a dongeon deepe huge numbers lay
Of caytive wretched thrals, that wayled night and day. 405


XLVI


A ruefull sight, as could be seene with eie;
Of whom he learned had in secret wise
The hidden cause of their captivitie,
How mortgaging their lives to Covetise,
Through wastfull Pride and wanton Riotise, 410
They were by law of that proud Tyrannesse,
Provokt with Wrath, and Envies false surmise,
Condemned to that Dongeon mercilesse,
Where they should live in woe, and die in wretchednesse.


XLVII


There was that great proud king of Babylon,(*) 415
That would compell all nations to adore,
And him as onely God to call upon,
Till through celestiall doome throwne out of dore,
Into an Oxe he was transform'd of yore:
There also was king Croesus,(*) that enhaunst 420
His hart too high through his great riches store;
And proud Antiochus,(*) the which advaunst
His cursed hand gainst God and on his altars daunst.


XLVIII


And them long time before, great Nimrod(*) was,
That first the world with sword and fire warrayd; 425
And after him old Ninus(*) farre did pas
In princely pompe, of all the world obayd;
There also was that mightie Monarch(*) layd
Low under all, yet above all in pride,
That name of native syre did fowle upbrayd, 430
And would as Ammons sonne be magnifide,
Till scornd of God and man a shamefull death he dide.


XLIX


All these together in one heape were throwne,
Like carkases of beasts in butchers stall.
And in another corner wide were strowne 435
The antique ruines of the Romaines fall:
Great Romulus(*) the Grandsyre of them all,
Proud Tarquin,(*) and too lordly Lentulus,(*)
Stout Scipio,(*) and stubborne Hanniball,(*)
Ambitious Sylla,(*) and sterne Marius,(*) 440
High Caesar, great Pompey,(*) and fierce Antonius.(*)


L


Amongst these mightie men were wemen mixt,
Proud wemen, vaine, forgetfull of their yoke:
The bold Semiramis,(*) whose sides transfixt
With sonnes own blade, her fowle reproches spoke; 445
Faire Sthenoboea,(*) that her selfe did choke
With wilfull cord, for wanting of her will;
High minded Cleopatra,(*) that with stroke
Of Aspes sting her selfe did stoutly kill:
And thousands moe the like, that did that dongeon fill; 450


LI


Besides the endlesse routs of wretched thralles,
Which thither were assembled day by day,
From all the world after their wofull falles
Through wicked pride, and wasted wealthes decay.
But most of all, which in the Dongeon lay, 455
Fell from high Princes courts, or Ladies bowres;
Where they in idle pompe, or wanton play,
Consumed had their goods, and thriftlesse howres,
And lastly throwne themselves into these heavy stowres.


LII


Whose case when as the carefull Dwarfe had tould, 460
And made ensample of their mournefull sight
Unto his maister, he no lenger would
There dwell in perill of like painefull plight,
But early rose, and ere that dawning light
Discovered had the world to heaven wyde, 465
He by a privie Posterne tooke his flight,
That of no envious eyes he mote be spyde:
For doubtlesse death ensewd, if any him descryde.


LIII


Scarse could he footing find in that fowle way,
For many corses, like a great Lay-stall, 470
Of murdred men which therein strowed lay,
Without remorse, or decent funerall:
Which all through that great Princesse pride did fall
And came to shamefull end. And them beside
Forth ryding underneath the castell wall, 475
A donghill of dead carkases he spide,
The dreadfull spectacle of that sad house of Pride.

NOTES:

CANTO V

I. _The Plot_: (a continuation of Canto IV). The Knight fights in the lists with Sansjoy and defeats him, but is prevented by Duessa's magic from slaying him. Duessa descends to Erebus and obtains the aid of Night, who conveys the wounded Saracen in her chariot to Aesculapius to be healed of his wounds. The tortures of some of the souls in Erebus are described, particularly the cause of Aesculapius' punishment. A roll of the prisoners whom the dwarf discovers in Pride's dungeon is given. The Knight flees with the dwarf from her house.

II. _The Allegory_: When the Christian Soldier is attacked by Joylessness, he has a far more desperate struggle than that with Infidelity, and comes out wounded though victorious. Joylessness when crushed by Holiness is restored by Pagan Philosophy. The backsliding Christian is warned in time by Prudence of the fearful consequences of sin, and hastens to turn his back on Pride and the other sins. The soul is led to dread Pride, not by Truth, but by its sufferings and other inferior motives.

25. THEIR TIMELY VOYCES, their voices keeping time with their harps.

27. OLD LOVES, famous love-affairs, the subject of the Minnesaengers.

29. IN WOVEN MAILE, in chain armor.

32. ARABY, probably here the Orient in general.

33. FROM FURTHEST YND, from farthest India.

39. UNTO A PALED GREENE, a green inclosure (lists for a tournament) surrounded by a palisade.

44. HIS. An old method of forming the possessive, based on a misapprehension of the original Anglo-Saxon suffix _-es_, which was shortened in middle English to _-is_, and finally to _s_.

45. BOTH THOSE, etc. Both Duessa and the shield are to go to the victor.

65. A GRYFON, a fabulous animal, part lion and part eagle. _Gryfon_ is subject of _encountereth_ with _Dragon_ as object.

89. AND SLUGGISH GERMAN, etc., and sluggish brother dost relax thy strength to send his (Sansfoy's) foe after him, that he may overtake him. In ll. 86-88 Sansjoy addresses his brother, in ll. 89-90 himself. _German_ is any blood relation.

100. The Knight supposed that Duessa's encouraging words were addressed to him.

114. Spenser here, with fine dramatic effect, imitates Homer, who saves Paris and Aeneas by a similar device. _Iliad_, iii, 380, and v, 345.

159. TEARES. This mention of the man-eating crocodile's tears is based on an old Latin proverb. Sir John Mandeville repeats the story.

172. GRIESLY NIGHT. According to mythology (Hesiod's _Theog_., 123), one of the first things created, the daughter of Chaos, and mother of Aether (sky) and Hemera (day); also of Deceit, Strife, Old Age, and Vengeance. See xxii and xxvii.

202. ON GRONING BEARE, on a bier with groaning friends around.

204. O WHAT OF GODS, etc., O what is it to be born of gods, if old Aveugle's (the father of the three Saracens) sons are so ill treated.

219. AND GOOD SUCCESSES, etc., and good results which follow their foes.

221. OR BREAKE THE CHAYNE, refers to Jove's proposition to fasten a golden chain to the earth by which to test his strength. Homer's _Iliad_, viii, 19. Cf. Milton's _Paradise Lost_, ii, 1051.

225. BAD EXCHEAT, bad gain by exchange. _Escheat_ is an old legal term, meaning any lands or goods which fall to the lord of a fief by forfeiture. Cf. "rob Peter to pay Paul."

229. SHALL WITH HIS OWNE BLOUD, etc., shall pay the price of the blood that he has spilt with his own.

263. Here Spenser imitates Homer's _Odyssey_, xvi, 163.

267. THE GHASTLY OWLE. The poet follows the Latin rather than the Greek poets, who regard the owl as the bird of wisdom.

273. OF DEEP AVERNUS HOLE. Avernus in the poets is a cavern (in an ancient crater), supposed to be the entrance to the infernal regions. Cf. Vergil's _Aeneid_, vi, 237. In Strabo's Geography it is a lake in Campania.

298. CERBERUS, the dog which guarded the lower regions. This stanza is an imitation of Vergil's _Aeneid_, vi, 417 _seq_. In Dante's _Inferno_ Vergil appeases him by casting handfuls of earth into his maw.

xxxv. In this stanza we see the influence of Homer and Vergil. Ixion, the king of Lapithae, was chained by order of Zeus to a fiery-winged wheel for aspiring to the love of the goddess Hera (Juno). Sisyphus had to roll a huge stone forever up a hill for betraying the designs of the gods. Tantalus, for divulging the secrets of Zeus, was condemned to stand tormented by thirst in a lake. Tityus, for an assault on Artemis, was pinioned to the ground with two vultures plucking at his vitals. Typhoeus, a hundred-headed giant, was slain by Zeus' thunderbolt, and buried under Aetna. The gin on which he was tortured was probably the rack of the Middle Ages. Cf. the bed of Procrustes. Theseus, for attempting to carry off Persephone, was fixed to a rock in Tartarus. The "fifty sisters" are the fifty Danaides, who, for slaying their husbands, were condemned to pour water forever into a vessel full of holes.

322. SAD AESCULAPIUS, the god of medicine, slain by Zeus for arresting death and diseases.

354. AND FATES EXPIRED, and the threads of life which the fates (Parcae) had severed.

387. GREAT PAINES, AND GREATER PRAISE, etc. His praise, like his pain, is to be eternal.

xlvii. This list of the thralls of Pride is in imitation of a similar one in Chaucer's _Monk's Tale_, which was based on Boccaccio's _De Casibus Illustrium Virorum_.

415. PROUD KING OF BABYLON, Nebuchadnezzar. See _Daniel_, iii and iv.

420. KING CROESUS, the last king of Lydia, who was overthrown by Cyrus in B.C. 646. _Herodotus_, i, 26.

422. PROUD ANTIOCHUS, Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who captured Jerusalem twice, and defiled God's altar. He died raving mad B.C. 164. Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_, xiii, 5-9.

424. GREAT NIMROD, "the mighty hunter" (_Genesis_, x, 8), whose game, according to Spenser, was man. Josephus tells us that through pride he built the tower of Babel.

426. OLD NINUS, the legendary founder of Nineveh, and put to death by his wife, Semiramis.

428. THAT MIGHTY MONARCH, Alexander the Great (B.C. 366-323), king of Macedon. While consulting the oracle of Jupiter Ammon in the Libyan desert he was saluted by the priests as "Ammons Sonne." He died either of poison (Plutarch) or of excessive drink (Diodorus).

437. GREAT ROMULUS, legendary founder of Rome (B.C. 753). See Livy, i, 16.

438. PROUD TARQUIN, Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome. He was banished B.C. 510.

438. TOO LORDLY LENTULUS, surnamed Sura, member of a haughty patrician family, who conspired with Catiline, and was strangled B.C. 62.

439. STOUT SCIPIO, Cornelius Scipio Africanus (B.C. 287?-183?), the conqueror of Hannibal, and self-exiled from Rome. Livy speaks of his inordinate pride, xxxviii, 50.

439. STUBBORNE HANNIBALL (B.C. 247-183), the great Carthaginian general, who died by poison to avoid falling into the hands of the Romans.

440. AMBITIOUS SYLLA (B.C. 138-78), Cornelius Sulla, the Dictator, who died a loathsome death.

440. STERNE MARIUS (B.C. 157-86), after being seven times consul, he was obliged to take refuge from his rival Sulla amid the ruins of Carthage.

441. HIGH CAESAR, Caius Julius Caesar (B.C. 100-44), who was murdered by Brutus and other conspirators.

441. GREAT POMPEY. Cn. Pompeius Magnus (B.C. 106-48). After his defeat at Pharsalia, he fled to Egypt, where he was murdered.

441. FIERCE ANTONIUS, Marcus (B.C. 83-30), the great triumvir, who after his defeat at Actium killed himself in Egypt.

444. THE BOLD SEMIRAMIS, the legendary queen of Assyria.

446. FAIRE STHENOBOEA, the wife of Proteus, who on account of her unrequited love for Bellerophon, died by hemlock. Aristophanes' _Frogs_, 1049 _seq_.

448. HIGH MINDED CLEOPATRA (B.C. 69-30), the beautiful queen of Egypt, who is said by Plutarch to have died in the manner mentioned.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto V)

1. How did Redcross spend the night before the fight with Sansjoy?

2. Study in detail the fine description of Duessa's descent to Erebus.

3. What elements of beauty are seen in the description of dawn and sunrise in ii? and compare _Psalms_, xix, 5. 4. What arbitrary classification of musicians does Spenser make in iii? 5. Who is the _far renowmed Queene_ in v? 6. Describe the joust between the Knight and Sansjoy. 7. Where do you learn of the laws governing such contests? 8. Observe the dramatic way in which Duessa saves Sansjoy. 9. What dramatic stroke in xxvii? 10. Describe Night and her team. 11. Give an account of her descent to Erebus with Sansjoy. 12. What were some of the tortures of the damned? 13. What effect is produced in xxx and how? 14. Point out some instances in which Spenser has imitated Homer--Vergil.

15. Where does he follow the Latin rather than the Greek poets?

16. Why did Aesculapius hesitate to heal Sansjoy? 17. Whom did the dwarf see in the dungeons of Pride? 18. Why did the Knight flee from the House of Pride?

19. Examine the following grammatical forms: _maken_, l. 22; _woundes_, l. 400. 20. What _figure of speech_ is employed in xviii? 21. What illustration is used in viii? 22. Find example of _balanced structure_ in vii; _alliteration_ in viii, xv, xviii. 23. Scan l. 23. 24. Note nom. abs. construction in xlv.

25. Paraphrase the involved constructions in xlii, xix, viii, xxxvi.


(The end)
Edmund Spenser's poem: The Faerie Queene, Book I, Canto 5

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