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Selections From The Prose Works Of Matthew Arnold - - Notes

POETRY AND THE CLASSICS

PAGE 1

(1) ~Poetry and the Classics~. Published as Preface to _Poems_: 1853 (dated Fox How, Ambleside, October 1, 1853). It was reprinted in Irish Essays, 1882.

(2) ~the poem~. _Empedocles on Etna_.

(3) ~the Sophists~. "A name given by the Greeks about the middle of the fifth century B.C. to certain teachers of a superior grade who, distinguishing themselves from philosophers on the one hand and from artists and craftsmen on the other, claimed to prepare their pupils, not for any particular study or profession, but for civic life." _Encyclopaedia Britannica_.

PAGE 2

(4) _Poetics_, 4.

(5) _Theognis_, ll. 54-56.

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(6) ~"The poet," it is said~. In the _Spectator of April 2, 1853. The words quoted were not used with reference to poems of mine.(Arnold.)

PAGE 5

(7) ~Dido~. See the _Iliad_, the _Oresteia (_Agamemnon, Choepharae_, and _Eumenides_) of AEschylus, and the _AEneid_.

(8) ~Hermann and Dorothea, Childe Harold, Jocelyn, the Excursion~. Long narrative poems by Goethe, Byron, Lamartine, and Wordsworth.

PAGE 6

(9) ~Oedipus~. See the _Oedipus Tyrannus and _Oedipus Coloneus of Sophocles.

PAGE 7

(10) ~grand style~. Arnold, while admitting that the term ~grand~ style, which he repeatedly uses, is incapable of exact verbal definition, describes it most adequately in the essay _On Translating Homer_: "I think it will be found that the grand style arises in poetry when a noble nature, poetically gifted, treats with simplicity or with severity a serious subject." See _On the Study of Celtic Literature and on Translating Homer_, ed. 1895, pp. 264-69.

(11) ~Orestes, or Merope, or Alcmaeon~. The story of ~Orestes~ was dramatized by AEschylus, by Sophocles, and by Euripides. Merope was the subject of a lost tragedy by Euripides and of several modern plays, including one by Matthew Arnold himself. The story of ~Alcmaeon~ was the subject of several tragedies which have not been preserved.

PAGE 8

(12) ~Polybius~. A Greek historian (c. 204-122 B.C.)

PAGE 9

(13). ~Menander~. See _Contribution of the Celts, Selections_, Note 3, p. 177.(Transcriber's note: this is Footnote 255 in this e-text.)

PAGE 12

(14) ~rien a dire~. He says all that he wishes to, but unfortunately he has nothing to say.

PAGE 13

(15) Boccaccio's _Decameron_, 4th day, 5th novel.

(16) ~Henry Hallam~ (1777-1859). English historian. See his _Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries_, chap. 23, Sec.Sec. 51, 52.

PAGE 14

(17) ~Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot~ (1787-1874), historian, orator, and statesman of France.

PAGE 16

(18) ~Pittacus~, of Mytilene in Lesbos (c. 650-569 B.C.), was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. His favorite sayings were: "It is hard to be excellent" ((Greek: chalepon esthlon emenai)), and "Know when to act."

PAGE 17

(19) ~Barthold Georg Niebuhr~ (1776-1831) was a German statesman and historian. His _Roman History (1827-32) is an epoch-making work. For his opinion of his age see his Life and Letters, London, 1852, II, 396.

PAGE 18

(20) _AEneid_, XII, 894-95.

THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME

PAGE 20

(21) Reprinted from _The National Review_, November, 1864, in the _Essays in Criticism_, Macmillan & Co., 1865.

(22) In _On Translating Homer_, ed. 1903, pp. 216-17.

(23) An essay called _Wordsworth: The Man and the Poet_, published in _The North British Review for August, 1864, vol. 41. ~John Campbell Shairp~ (1819-85), Scottish critic and man of letters, was professor of poetry at Oxford from 1877 to 1884. The best of his lectures from this chair were published in 1881 as _Aspects of Poetry_.

(24) I cannot help thinking that a practice, common in England during the last century, and still followed in France, of printing a notice of this kind,--a notice by a competent critic,--to serve as an introduction to an eminent author's works, might be revived among us with advantage. To introduce all succeeding editions of Wordsworth, Mr. Shairp's notice might, it seems to me, excellently serve; it is written from the point of view of an admirer, nay, of a disciple, and that is right; but then the disciple must be also, as in this case he is, a critic, a man of letters, not, as too often happens, some relation or friend with no qualification for his task except affection for his author.(Arnold.)

(25) See _Memoirs of William Wordsworth_, ed. 1851, II, 151, letter to Bernard Barton.

PAGE 21

(26) ~Irene~. An unsuccessful play of Dr. Johnson's.

PAGE 22

(27) ~Preface~. Prefixed to the second edition (1800) of the _Lyrical Ballads_.

PAGE 28

(28) ~The old woman~. At the first attempt to read the newly prescribed liturgy in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh, on July 23, 1637, a riot took place, in which the "fauld-stools," or folding stools, of the congregation were hurled as missiles. An untrustworthy tradition attributes the flinging of the first stool to a certain Jenny or Janet Geddes.

PAGE 29

(29) _Pensees de J. Joubert_, ed. 1850, I, 355, titre 15, 2.

PAGE 30

(30) ~French Revolution~. The latter part of Burke's life was largely devoted to a conflict with the upholders of the French Revolution. _Reflections on the Revolution in France_, 1790, and _Letters on a Regicide Peace_, 1796, are his most famous writings in this cause.

PAGE 31

(31) ~Richard Price, D.D.~ (1723-91), was strongly opposed to the war with America and in sympathy with the French revolutionists.

(32) From Goldsmith's epitaph on Burke in the _Retaliation_.

PAGE 32

(33) ~Num. XXII~, 35.

(34) ~William Eden, First Baron Auckland~ (1745-1814), English statesman. Among other services he represented English interests in Holland during the critical years 1790-93.

PAGE 35

(35) ~Revue des deux Mondes~. The best-known of the French magazines devoted to literature, art, and general criticism, founded in Paris in 1831 by Francois Buloz.

PAGE 36

(36) ~Home and Foreign Review~. Published in London 1862-64.

PAGE 37

(37) ~Charles Bowyer Adderley, First Baron Norton~ (1814-1905), English politician, inherited valuable estates in Warwickshire. He was a strong churchman and especially interested in education and the colonies.

(38) ~John Arthur Roebuck~ (1801-79), a leading radical and utilitarian reformer, conspicuous for his eloquence, honesty, and strong hostility to the government of his day. He held a seat for Sheffield from 1849 until his death.

PAGE 38

(39) From Goethe's _Iphigenie auf Tauris_, I, ii, 91-92.

PAGE 40

(40) ~detachment~. In the Buddhistic religion salvation is found through an emancipation from the craving for the gratification of the senses, for a future life, and for prosperity.

PAGE 42

(41) ~John Somers, Baron Somers~ (1651-1716), was the most trusted minister of William III, and a stanch supporter of the English Constitution. See Addison, _The Freeholder_, May 14, 1716, and Macauley's _History_, iv, 53.

(42) ~William Cobbett~ (1762-1835). English politician and writer. As a pamphleteer his reputation was injured by his pugnacity, self-esteem, and virulence of language. See _Heine, Selections_, p. 120, (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 144 in this e-text) and _The Contribution of the Celts, Selections_, p. 179.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 257 in this e-text.)

(43) ~Carlyle's~ _Latter-Day Pamphlets (1850) contain much violent denunciation of the society of his day.

(44) ~Ruskin~ turned to political economy about 1860. In 1862, he published _Unto this Last_, followed by other works of similar nature.

(45) ~terrae filii~. Sons of Mother Earth; hence, obscure, mean persons.

(46) See _Heine, Selections_, Note 2, p. 117.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 140 in this e-text.)

PAGE 43

(47) ~To think is so hard~. Goethe's _Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship_, Book VII, chap. IX.

(48) See Senancour's _Obermann_, letter 90. Arnold was much influenced by this remarkable book. For an account of the author (1770-1846) and the book see Arnold's _Stanzas in Memory of the Author of "Obermann_," with note on the poem, and the essay on Obermann in _Essays in Criticism_, third series.

(49) So sincere is my dislike to all personal attack and controversy, that I abstain from reprinting, at this distance of time from the occasion which called them forth, the essays in which I criticized Dr. Colenso's book; I feel bound, however, after all that has passed, to make here a final declaration of my sincere impenitence for having published them. Nay, I cannot forbear repeating yet once more, for his benefit and that of his readers, this sentence from my original remarks upon him; _There is truth of science and truth of religion; truth of science does not become truth of religion till it is made religious. And I will add: Let us have all the science there is from the men of science; from the men of religion let us have religion.(Arnold.)

~John William Colenso~ (1814-83), Bishop of Natal, published a series of treatises on the _Pentateuch_, extending from 1862-1879, opposing the traditional views about the literal inspiration of the Scriptures and the actual historical character of the Mosaic story. Arnold's censorious criticism of the first volume of this work is entitled _The Bishop and the Philosopher (_Macmillan's Magazine_, January, 1863). As an example of the Bishop's cheap "arithmetical demonstrations" he describes him as presenting the case of Leviticus as follows: "'_If three priests have to eat 264 pigeons a day, how many must each priest eat?_' That disposes of Leviticus." The essay is devoted chiefly to contrasting Bishop Colenso's unedifying methods with those of the philosopher Spinoza. In passing, Arnold refers also to Dr. Stanley's _Sinai and Palestine (1856), quotations from which are characterized as "the refreshing spots" in the Bishop's volume.

(50) It has been said I make it "a crime against literary criticism and the higher culture to attempt to inform the ignorant." Need I point out that the ignorant are not informed by being confirmed in a confusion? (Arnold.)

PAGE 44

(51) Joubert's _Pensees_, ed. 1850, II, 102, titre 23, 54.

(52) ~Arthur Penrhyn Stanley~ (1815-81), Dean of Westminster. He was the author of a _Life of (Thomas) _Arnold_, 1844. In university politics and in religious discussions he was a Liberal and the advocate of toleration and comprehension.

(53) ~Frances Power Cobbe~ (1822-1904), a prominent English philanthropist and woman of letters. The quotation below is from _Broken Lights (1864), p. 134. Her _Religious Duty (1857), referred to on p. 46, is a book of religious and ethical instruction written from the Unitarian point of view.

(54) ~Ernest Renan~ (1823-92), French philosopher and Orientalist. The _Vie de Jesus (1863), here referred to, was begun in Syria and is filled with the atmosphere of the East, but is a work of literary rather than of scholarly importance.

PAGE 45

(55) ~David Friedrich Strauss~ (1808-74), German theologian and man of letters. The work referred to is the _Leben Jesu 1835. A popular edition was published in 1864.

(56) From "Fleury (Preface) on the Gospel."--Arnold's _Note Book_.

PAGE 46

(57) Cicero's _Att. 16. 7. 3.

(58) ~Coleridge's happy phrase~. Coleridge's _Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit_, letter 2.

PAGE 49

(59) ~Luther's theory of grace~. The question concerning the "means of grace," i.e. whether the efficacy of the sacraments as channels of the divine grace is _ex opere operato_, or dependent on the faith of the recipient, was the chief subject of controversy between Catholics and Protestants during the period of the Reformation.

(60) ~Jacques Benigne Bossuet~ (1627-1704), French divine, orator, and writer. His _Discours sur l'histoire universelle (1681) was an attempt to provide ecclesiastical authority with a rational basis. It is dominated by the conviction that "the establishment of Christianity was the one point of real importance in the whole history of the world."

PAGE 50

(61) From Virgil's _Eclogues_, iv, 5. Translated in Shelley's _Hellas_: "The world's great age begins anew."


THE STUDY OF POETRY

PAGE 55

(62) Published in 1880 as the General Introduction to _The English Poets_, edited by T.H. Ward. Reprinted in _Essays in Criticism_, Second Series, Macmillan & Co., 1888.

(63) This quotation is taken, slightly condensed, from the closing paragraph of a short introduction contributed by Arnold to _The Hundred Greatest Men_, Sampson, Low & Co., London, 1885.

PAGE 56

(64) From the Preface to the second edition of the _Lyrical Ballads_, 1800.

(65) ~Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve~ (1804-69), French critic, was looked upon by Arnold as in certain respects his master in the art of criticism.

PAGE 57

(66) ~a criticism of life~. This celebrated phrase was first used by Arnold in the essay on _Joubert (1864), though the theory is implied in _On Translating Homer_, 1861. In _Joubert it is applied to literature: "The end and aim of all literature, if one considers it attentively, is, in truth, nothing but that." It was much attacked, especially as applied to poetry, and is defended as so applied in the essay on _Byron (1881). See also _Wordsworth, Selections_, p. 230.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 371 in this e-text.)

(67) Compare Arnold's definition of the function of criticism, _Selections_, p. 52.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 61 in this e-text.)

PAGE 59

(68) ~Paul Pellisson~ (1624-93). French author, friend of Mlle. Scudery, and historiographer to the king.

(69) Barren and servile civility.

70. ~M. Charles d' Hericault~ was joint editor of the Jannet edition (1868-72) of the poems of ~Clement Marot~ (1496-1544).

PAGE 62

(71) _Imitation of Christ_, Book III, chap. 43, 2.

(72) ~Caedmon~. The first important religious poet in Old English literature. Died about 680 A.D.

(73) ~Ludovic Vitet~ (1802-73). French dramatist and politician.

(74) ~Chanson de Roland~. The greatest of the _Chansons des Gestes_, long narrative poems dealing with warfare and adventure popular in France during the Middle Ages. It was composed in the eleventh century. Taillefer was the surname of a bard and warrior of the eleventh century. The tradition concerning him is related by Wace, _Roman de Rou_, third part, v., 8035-62, ed. Andreson, Heilbronn, 1879. The Bodleian _Roland ends with the words: "ci folt la geste, que Turoldus declinet." Turold has not been identified.

PAGE 63

(75) "Then began he to call many things to remembrance,--all the lands which his valor conquered, and pleasant France, and the men of his lineage, and Charlemagne his liege lord who nourished him."--_Chanson de Roland_, III, 939-42.(Arnold.)

(76)

"So said she; they long since in Earth's soft arms were reposing,
There, in their own dear land, their fatherland, Lacedaemon."
_Iliad_, III, 243, 244 (translated by Dr. Hawtrey).(Arnold.)

PAGE 64

(77) "Ah, unhappy pair, why gave we you to King Peleus, to a mortal? but ye are without old age, and immortal. Was it that with men born to misery ye might have sorrow?"--_Iliad_, XVII, 443-445.(Arnold.)

(78) "Nay, and thou too, old man, in former days wast, as we hear, happy."--_Iliad_, XXIV, 543.(Arnold.)

(79) "I wailed not, so of stone grew I within;--_they wailed."-- _Inferno_, XXXIII, 39, 40.(Arnold.)

(80) "Of such sort hath God, thanked be His mercy, made me, that your misery toucheth me not, neither doth the flame of this fire strike me." --_Inferno_, II, 91-93.(Arnold.)

(81) "In His will is our peace."--_Paradiso_, III, 85.(Arnold.)

(82) _Henry IV_, part 2, III, i, 18-20.

PAGE 65

(83) _Hamlet_, V, ii, 361-62.

(84) _Paradise Lost_, I, 599-602.

(85) _Ibid._, I, 108-9.

(86) _Ibid._, IV, 271.

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(87) _Poetics_, Sec. 9.

PAGE 67

(88) ~Provencal~, the language of southern France, from the southern French _oc instead of the northern _oil for "yes."

PAGE 68

(89) Dante acknowledges his debt to ~Latini~ (c. 1230-c. 1294), but the latter was probably not his tutor. He is the author of the _Tesoretto_, a heptasyllabic Italian poem, and the prose _Livres dou Tresor_, a sort of encyclopedia of medieval lore, written in French because that language "is more delightful and more widely known."

(90) ~Christian of Troyes~. A French poet of the second half of the twelfth century, author of numerous narrative poems dealing with legends of the Round Table. The present quotation is from the _Cliges_, ll. 30-39.

PAGE 69

(91) Chaucer's two favorite stanzas, the seven-line and eight-line stanzas in heroic verse, were imitated from Old French poetry. See B. ten Brink's _The Language and Meter of Chaucer_, 1901, pp. 353-57.

(92) ~Wolfram von Eschenbach~. A medieval German poet, born in the end of the twelfth century. His best-known poem is the epic _Parzival_.

PAGE 70

(93) From Dryden's _Preface to the Fables_, 1700.

(94) The _Confessio Amantis_, the single English poem of ~John Gower~ (c. 1330-1408), was in existence in 1392-93.

PAGE 71

(95) ~souded~. The French _soude_, soldered, fixed fast.(Arnold.) From the _Prioress's Tale_, ed. Skeat, 1894, B. 1769. The line should read, "O martir, souded to virginitee."

PAGE 73

(96) ~Francois Villon~, born in or near Paris in 1431, thief and poet. His best-known poems are his _ballades_. See R.L. Stevenson's essay.

(97) The name _Heaulmiere is said to be derived from a headdress (helm) worn as a mark by courtesans. In Villon's ballad, a poor old creature of this class laments her days of youth and beauty. The last stanza of the ballad runs thus:

"Ainsi le bon temps regretons
Entre nous, pauvres vieilles sottes,
Assises bas, a croppetons,
Tout en ung tas comme pelottes;
A petit feu de chenevottes
Tost allumees, tost estainctes.
Et jadis fusmes si mignottes!
Ainsi en prend a maintz et maintes."

"Thus amongst ourselves we regret the good time, poor silly old things, low-seated on our heels, all in a heap like so many balls; by a little fire of hemp-stalks, soon lighted, soon spent. And once we were such darlings! So fares it with many and many a one."(Arnold.)

PAGE 74

(98) From _An Essay of Dramatic Poesy_, 1688.

(99) A statement to this effect is made by Dryden in the _Preface to the Fables_.

(100) From _Preface to the Fables_.

PAGE 75

(101) See Wordsworth's _Essay, Supplementary to the Preface_, 1815, and Coleridge's _Biographia Literaria_.

(102) _An Apology for Smectymnuus_, Prose Works, ed. 1843, III, 117-18. Milton was thirty-four years old at this time.

PAGE 76

(103) The opening words of Dryden's _Postscript to the Reader in the translation of Virgil, 1697.

PAGE 77

(104) The opening lines of _The Hind and the Panther_.

(105) _Imitations of Horace_, Book II, Satire 2, ll. 143-44.

PAGE 78

(106) From _On the Death of Robert Dundas, Esq._

PAGE 79

(107) ~Clarinda~. A name assumed by Mrs. Maclehose in her sentimental connection with Burns, who corresponded with her under the name of Sylvander.

(108) Burns to Mr. Thomson, October 19, 1794.

PAGE 80

(109) From _The Holy Fair_.

PAGE 81

(110) From _Epistle: To a Young Friend_.

(111) From _Address to the Unco' Quid, or the Rigidly Righteous_.

(112) From _Epistle: To Dr. Blacklock_.

(Footnote 4: See his _Memorabilia_.)(Transcriber's note: The reference for this footnote is missing from the original text.)

PAGE 83

(113) From _Winter: A Dirge_.

PAGE 84

(114) From Shelley's _Prometheus Unbound_, III, iv, last line.

(115) _Ibid._, II, v.

LITERATURE AND SCIENCE

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(116) Reprinted (considerably revised) from the _Nineteenth Century_, August, 1882, vol. XII, in _Discourses in America_, Macmillan & Co., 1885. It was the most popular of the three lectures given by Arnold during his visit to America in 1883-84.

(117) Plato's _Republic_, 6. 495, _Dialogues_, ed. Jowett, 1875, vol. 3, p. 194.

(118) ~working lawyer~. Plato's _Theoetetus, 172-73, _Dialogues_, IV, 231.

PAGE 88

(119) ~majesty~. All editions read "majority." What Emerson said was "majesty," which is therefore substituted here. See Emerson's _Literary Ethics, Works_, Centenary ed., I, 179.

PAGE 89

(120) "His whole soul is perfected and ennobled by the acquirement of justice and temperance and wisdom. ... And in the first place, he will honor studies which impress these qualities on his soul and will disregard others."--_Republic_, IX, 591, _Dialogues_, III, 305.

PAGE 91

(121) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, p. 52.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 61 in this e-text.)

(122) Delivered October 1, 1880, and printed in _Science and Culture and Other Essays_, Macmillan & Co., 1881.

(123) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, pp. 52-53. (Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 61 in this e-text.)

PAGE 92

(124) See _L'Instruction superieur en France in Renan's _Questions Contemporaines_, Paris, 1868.

PAGE 93

(125) ~Friedrich August Wolf~ (1759-1824), German philologist and critic.

PAGE 99

(126) See Plato's _Symposium, Dialogues_, II, 52-63.

PAGE 100

(127) ~James Joseph Sylvester~ (1814-97), English mathematician. In 1883, the year of Arnold's lecture, he resigned a position as teacher in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, to accept the Savilian Chair of Geometry at Oxford.

PAGE 101

(128) Darwin's famous proposition. _Descent of Man_, Part III, chap. XXI, ed. 1888, II, 424.

PAGE 103

(129) ~Michael Faraday~ (1791-1867), English chemist and physicist, and the discoverer of the induction of electrical currents. He belonged to the very small Christian sect called after ~Robert Sandeman~, and his opinion with respect to the relation between his science and his religion is expressed in a lecture on mental education printed at the end of his _Researches in Chemistry and Physics_.

PAGE 105

(130) Eccles. VIII, 17.(Arnold.)

(131) _Iliad_, XXIV, 49.(Arnold.)

(132) Luke IX, 25.

PAGE 107

(133) _Macbeth_, V, iii.

PAGE 109

(134) A touching account of the devotion of ~Lady Jane Grey~ (1537-54) to her studies is to be found in Ascham's _Scholemaster_, Arber's ed., 46-47.

HEINRICH HEINE

PAGE 112

(135) Reprinted from the _Cornhill Magazine_, vol. VIII, August, 1863, in _Essays in Criticism_, 1st series, 1865.

(136) Written from Paris, March 30, 1855. See Heine's _Memoirs_, ed. 1910, II, 270.

PAGE 113

(137) The German Romantic school of ~Tieck~ (1773-1853), ~Novalis~ (1772-1801), and ~Richter~ (1763-1825) followed the classical school of Schiller and Goethe. It was characterized by a return to individualism, subjectivity, and the supernatural. Carlyle translated extracts from Tieck and Richter in his _German Romance (1827), and his _Critical and Miscellaneous Essays contain essays on Richter and Novalis.

PAGE 114

(138) From _English Fragments; Conclusion_, in _Pictures of Travel_, ed. 1891, Leland's translation, _Works_, III, 466-67.

PAGE 117

(139) ~Heine's~ birthplace was not ~Hamburg~, but ~Duesseldorf~.

(140) ~Philistinism~. In German university slang the term _Philister was applied to townsmen by students, and corresponded to the English university "snob." Hence it came to mean a person devoid of culture and enlightenment, and is used in this sense by Goethe in 1773. Heine was especially instrumental in popularizing the expression outside of Germany. Carlyle first introduced it into English literature in 1827. In a note to the discussion of Goethe in the second edition of _German Romance_, he speaks of a Philistine as one who "judged of Brunswick mum, by its _utility_." He adds: "Stray specimens of the Philistine nation are said to exist in our own Islands; but we have no name for them like the Germans." The term occurs also in Carlyle's essays on _The State of German Literature_, 1827, and _Historic Survey of German Poetry_, 1831. Arnold, however, has done most to establish the word in English usage. He applies it especially to members of the middle class who are swayed chiefly by material interests and are blind to the force of ideas and the value of culture. Leslie Stephen, who is always ready to plead the cause of the Philistine, remarks: "As a clergyman always calls every one from whom he differs an atheist, and a bargee has one or two favorite but unmentionable expressions for the same purpose, so a prig always calls his adversary a Philistine." _Mr. Matthew Arnold and the Church of England, Fraser's Magazine_, October, 1870.

(141) The word ~solecism~ is derived from(Greek: soloi), in Cilicia, owing to the corruption of the Attic dialect among the Athenian colonists of that place.

PAGE 118

(142) The "~gig~" as Carlyle's symbol of philistinism takes its origin from a dialogue which took place in Thurtell's trial: "I always thought him a respectable man." "What do you mean by 'respectable'?" "He kept a gig." From this he coins the words "gigman," "gigmanity," "gigmania," which are of frequent occurrence in his writings.

PAGE 119

(143) _English Fragments, Pictures of Travel, Works_, III, 464.

PAGE 120

(144) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, Note 2, p. 42. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 42 in this e-text.)

PAGE 121

(145) _English Fragments_, chap. IX, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, III, 410-11.

(146) Adapted from a line in Wordsworth's _Resolution and Independence_.

PAGE 122

(147) ~Charles the Fifth~. Ruler of The Holy Roman Empire, 1500-58.

PAGE 124

(148) _English Fragments, Conclusion_, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, III, 468-70.

(149) A complete edition has at last appeared in Germany.(Arnold.)

PAGE 125

(150) ~Augustin Eugene Scribe~ (1791-1861), French dramatist, for fifty years the best exponent of the ideas of the French middle class.

PAGE 126

(151) ~Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte~ (Napoleon III), 1808-73, son of Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I, by the _coup d'etat of December, 1851, became Emperor of France. This was accomplished against the resistance of the Moderate Republicans, partly through the favor of his democratic theories with the mass of the French people. Heine was mistaken, however, in believing that the rule of Louis Napoleon had prepared the way for Communism. An attempt to bring about a Communistic revolution was easily crushed in 1871.

PAGE 127

(152) ~J.J. von Goerres~ (1776-1848), ~Klemens Brentano~ (1778-1842), and ~Ludwig Achim von Arnim~ (1781-1831) were the leaders of the second German Romantic school and constitute the Heidelberg group of writers. They were much interested in the German past, and strengthened the national and patriotic spirit. Their work, however, is often marred by exaggeration and affectation.

PAGE 128

(153) From _The Baths of Lucca_, chap. X, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, III, 199.

PAGE 129

(154) Cf. _Function of Criticism, Selections_, p. 26.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 27 in this e-text.)

(155) Job XII, 23: "He enlargeth the nations and straiteneth them again."

PAGE 131

(156) Lucan, _Pharsalia_, book I, 135: "he stands the shadow of a great name."

PAGE 132

(157) From _Ideas_, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, II, 312-13.

(158) ~Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh~ (1769-1822), as Foreign Secretary under Lord Liverpool, became the soul of the coalition against Napoleon, which, during the campaigns of 1813-14, was kept together by him alone. He committed suicide with a penknife in a fit of insanity in August, 1822.

(159) From _Ideas_, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, II, 324.

(160) From _English Fragments_, 1828, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, III, 340-42.

PAGE 133

(161) Song in _Measure for Measure_, IV, i.

(162)(Transcriber's note: "From _The Dying One_: for translation see p. 142." in original. Please see reference in text for Footnote 180.)

PAGE 135

(163) From _Mountain Idyll, Travels in the Hartz Mountains, Book of Songs. Works_, ed. 1904, pp. 219-21.

(164) Published 1851.

(165) ~Rhampsinitus~. A Greek corruption of _Ra-messu-pa-neter_, the popular name of Rameses III, King of Egypt.

(166) ~Edith with the Swan Neck~. A mistress of King Harold of England.

(167) ~Melisanda of Tripoli~. Mistress of Geoffrey Rudel, the troubadour.

(168) ~Pedro the Cruel~. King of Castile (1334-69).

(169) ~Firdusi~. A Persian poet, author of the epic poem, the _Shahnama_, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly sixty thousand verses.

(170) ~Dr. Doellinger~. A German theologian and church historian (1799-1890).

(171) _Spanish Atrides, Romancero, Works_, ed. 1905, pp. 200-04.

(172) ~Henry of Trastamare~. King of Castile (1369-79).

PAGE 137

(173) ~garbanzos~. A kind of pulse much esteemed in Spain.

PAGE 138

(174) Adapted from Rom. VIII, 26.

PAGE 139

(175) From _The Baths of Lucca_, chap. IX, in _Pictures of Travel, Works_, III, 184-85.

(176) _Romancero_, book III.

PAGE 140

(177) ~Laura~. The heroine of Petrarch's famous series of love lyrics known as the _Canzoniere_.

(178) ~Court of Love~. For a discussion of this supposed medieval tribunal see William A. Neilson's _The Origins and Sources of the Court of Love, Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature_, Boston, 1899, chap. VIII.

PAGE 142

(179) _Disputation, Romancero_, book III.

(180) _The Dying One, Romancero_, book II, quoted entire.

PAGE 143

(181) Written from Paris, September 30, 1850. See _Memoirs_, ed. 1910, II, 226-27.

MARCUS AURELIUS

PAGE 145

(182) Reprinted from _The Victoria Magazine_, II, 1-9, November, 1863, in _Essays in Criticism_, 1865.

(183) ~John Stuart Mill~ (1806-73), English philosopher and economist. _On Liberty (1859) is his most finished writing.

(184) The _Imitation of Christ (_Imitatio Christi_), a famous medieval Christian devotional work, is usually ascribed to Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471), an Augustinian canon of Mont St. Agnes in the diocese of Utrecht.

PAGE 146

(185) ~Epictetus~. Greek Stoic philosopher (born c. A.D. 60). He is an earnest preacher of righteousness and his philosophy is eminently practical. For Arnold's personal debt to him see his sonnet _To a Friend_.

PAGE 147

(186) ~Empedocles~. A Greek philosopher and statesman (c. 490-430 B.C.). He is the subject of Arnold's early poetical drama, _Empedocles on Etna_, which he later suppressed for reasons which he states in the Preface to the _Poems of 1853. See _Selections_, pp. 1-3. (Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 1 in this e-text.)

(187) _Encheiridion_, chap. LII.

(188) Ps. CXLIII, 10; incorrectly quoted.

(189) Is. LX, 19.

(190) Mal. IV, 2.

(191) John I, 13.

(192) John III, 5.

PAGE 148

(193) 1 John V, 4.

(194) Matt. XIX, 26.

(195) 2 Cor. V, 17.

(196) _Encheiridion_, chap. XLIII.

(197) Matt. XVIII, 22.

(198) Matt. XXII, 37-39, etc.

PAGE 149

(199) ~George Long~ (1800-79), classical scholar. He published _Selections from Plutarch's Lives_, 1862; _Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius_, 1862; etc.

(200) ~Thomas Arnold~ (1795-1842), English clergyman and headmaster of Rugby School, father of Matthew Arnold.

PAGE 150

(201) ~Jeremy Collier~ (1650-1726). His best-known work is his _Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage_, 1698, a sharp and efficacious attack on the Post-Restoration drama. _The Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, his Conversation with himself_, appeared in 1701.

PAGE 151

(202) _Meditations_, III, 14.

PAGE 152

203. ~Antoninus Pius~. Roman Emperor, A.D. 138-161, and foster-father of M. Aurelius.

(204) To become current in men's speech.

(205) The real name of ~Voltaire~ was ~Francois Marie Arouet~. The name Voltaire was assumed in 1718 and is supposed to be an anagram of Arouet le j(eune).

PAGE 154

(206) See _Function of Criticism, Selections_, p. 36.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 36 in this e-text.)

(207) ~Louis IX of France~ (1215-70), the leader of the crusade of 1248.

PAGE 155

(208) ~The Saturday Review~, begun in 1855, was pronouncedly conservative in politics. It devoted much space to pure criticism and scholarship, and Arnold's essays are frequently criticized in its columns.

(209) He died on the 17th of March, A.D. 180.(Arnold.)

PAGE 156

(210) ~Juvenal's sixth satire~ is a scathing arraignment of the vices and follies of the women of Rome during the reign of Domitian.

(211) See Juvenal, _Sat. 3, 76.

(212) Because he lacks an inspired poet (to sing his praises). Horace, _Odes_, IV, 9, 28.

PAGE 157

(213) ~Avidius Cassius~, a distinguished general, declared himself Emperor in Syria in 176 A.D. Aurelius proceeded against him, deploring the necessity of taking up arms against a trusted officer. Cassius was slain by his own officers while M. Aurelius was still in Illyria.

(214) ~Commodus~. Emperor of Rome, 180-192 A.D. He was dissolute and tyrannical.

(215) ~Attalus~, a Roman citizen, was put to death with other Christians in A.D. 177.

(216) ~Polycarp~, Bishop of Smyrna, and one of the Apostolic Fathers, suffered martyrdom in 155 A.D.

PAGE 159

(217) ~Tacitus~, _Ab Excessu Augusti_, XV, 44.

PAGE 161

(218) ~Claude Fleury~ (1640-1723), French ecclesiastical historian, author of the _Histoire Ecclesiastique_, 20 vols., 1691.

PAGE 163

(219) _Med._, I, 12.

(220) _Ibid._, I, 14.

(221) _Ibid._, IV, 24.

PAGE 164

(222) _Ibid._, III, 4.

PAGE 165

(223) _Ibid._, V, 6.

(224) _Ibid._, IX, 42.

(225) ~Lucius Annaeus Seneca~ (c. 3 B.C.-A.D. 65), statesman and philosopher. His twelve so-called _Dialogues are Stoic sermons of a practical and earnest character.

PAGE 166

(226) _Med._, III, 2.

PAGE 167

(227) _Ibid._, V, 5.

(228) _Ibid._, VIII, 34.

PAGE 168

(229) _Ibid._, IV, 3.

PAGE 169

(230) _Ibid._, I, 17.

(231) ~Tiberius, Caligula, Nero, Domitian~. Roman Emperors, 14-37 A.D., 37-41 A.D., 54-68 A.D., and 81-96 A.D.

(232) _Med._, IV, 28.

(233) _Ibid._, V, 11.

PAGE 170

(234) _Ibid._, X, 8.

PAGE 171

(235) _Ibid._, IV, 32.

(236) _Ibid._, V, 33.

(237) _Ibid._, IX, 30.

(238) _Ibid._, VII, 55.

PAGE 172

(239) _Ibid._, VI, 48.

(240) _Ibid._, IX, 3.

PAGE 173

(241) Matt. XVII, 17.

(242) _Med._, X, 15.

(243) _Ibid._, VI, 45.

(244) _Ibid._, V, 8.

(245) _Ibid._, VII, 55.

PAGE 174

(246) _Ibid._, IV, 1.

(247) _Ibid._, X, 31.

(248) _Ibid._

PAGE 175

(249) ~Alogi~. An ancient sect that rejected the Apocalypse and the Gospel of St. John.

(250) ~Gnosis~. Knowledge of spiritual truth or of matters commonly conceived to pertain to faith alone, such as was claimed by the Gnostics, a heretical Christian sect of the second century.

(251) The correct reading is _tendebantque (_AEneid_, VI, 314), which Arnold has altered to apply to the present case.

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CELTS TO ENGLISH LITERATURE

PAGE 176

(252) From _On The Study of Celtic Literature_, London, 1867, chap. VI. It was previously published in the _Cornhill Magazine_, vols. XIII and XIV, March-July, 1866. In the Introduction to the book Arnold says: "The following remarks on the study of Celtic literature formed the substance of four lectures given by me last year and the year before in the chair of poetry at Oxford." The chapter is slightly abridged in the present selection.

PAGE 177

(253) _Paradise Lost_, III, 32-35.

(254) _Tasso_, I, 2, 304-05.

(255) ~Menander~. The most famous Greek poet of the New Comedy (342-291 B.C.).

PAGE 179

(256) ~Gemeinheit~. Arnold defines the word five lines below.

(257) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, Note 2, p. 42. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 42 in this e-text.)

(258) ~Bossuet~. See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, Note 2, p. 49.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 60 in this e-text.)

(259) ~Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke~ (1678-1751), English statesman and man of letters, was author of the _Idea of a Patriot King_. Arnold is inclined to overestimate the quality of his style.

PAGE 180

(260) ~Taliessin~ and ~Llywarch Hen~ are the names of Welsh bards, supposedly of the late sixth century, whose poems are contained in the _Red Book of Hergest_, a manuscript formerly preserved in Jesus College, Oxford, and now in the Bodleian. Nothing further is known of them. ~Ossian~, ~Ossin~, or ~Oisin~, was a legendary Irish third century hero and poet, the son of Finn. In Scotland the Ossianic revival was due to James Macpherson. See Note 1, p. 181.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 262 in this e-text.)

(261) From the _Black Book of Caermarthen_, 19.

PAGE 181

(262) ~James Macpherson~ (1736-96) published anonymously in 1760 his _Fragments of Ancient Poetry, collected in the Highlands of Scotland and translated from the Gaelic or Erse language_. This was followed by an epic _Fingal and other poems. Their authenticity was early doubted and a controversy followed. They are now generally believed to be forgeries. The passage quoted, as well as references to Selma, "woody Morven," and "echoing Lora" (not _Sora_), is from _Carthon: a Poem_.

PAGE 182

(263) ~Werther~. Goethe's _Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774) was a product of the _Sturm und Drang movement in German literature, and responsible for its sentimental excesses. Goethe mentions Ossian in connection with Homer in _Werther_, book II, "am 12. October," and translates several passages of considerable length toward the close of this book.

(264) ~Prometheus~. An unfinished drama of Goethe's, of which a fine fragment remains.

PAGE 183

(265) For ~Llywarch Hen~, see Note 1, p. 180.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 260 in this e-text.) The present quotation is from book II of the _Red Book_. A translation of the poem differing somewhat from the one quoted by Arnold is contained in W.F. Skene's _The Four Ancient Books of Wales_, Edinburgh, 1868.

(266) From _On this day I complete my thirty-sixth year_, 1824.

(267) From _Euthanasia_, 1812.

PAGE 184

(268) ~Manfred, Lara, Cain~. Heroes of Byron's poems so named.

(269) From _Paradise Lost_, I, 105-09.

PAGE 185

(270) Rhyme,--the most striking characteristic of our modern poetry as distinguished from that of the ancients, and a main source, to our poetry, of its magic and charm, of what we call its _romantic element_-- rhyme itself, all the weight of evidence tends to show, comes into our poetry from the Celts.(Arnold.) A different explanation is given by J. Schipper, _A History of English Versification_, Oxford, 1910: "End-rhyme or full-rhyme seems to have arisen independently and without historical connection in several nations.... Its adoption into all modern literature is due to the extensive use made of it in the hymns of the church."

(271) Lady Guest's _Mabinogion, Math the Son of Mathonwy_, ed. 1819, III, 239.

(272) _Mabinogion, Kilhwch and Olwen_, II, 275.

PAGE 186

(273) _Mabinogion, Peredur the Son of Evrawc_, I, 324.

(274) _Mabinogion, Geraint the Son of Erbin_, II, 112.

PAGE 187

(275) ~Novalis~. The pen-name of ~Friedrich von Hardenberg~ (1772-1801), sometimes called the "Prophet of Romanticism." See Carlyle's essay on Novalis.

(276) For ~Rueckert~, see _Wordsworth, Selections_, Note 4, p. 224. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 356 in this e-text.)

(277) Take the following attempt to render the natural magic supposed to pervade Tieck's poetry: "In diesen Dichtungen herrscht eine geheimnissvolle Innigkeit, ein sonderbares Einverstaendniss mit der Natur, besonders mit der Pflanzen-und Steinreich. Der Leser fuehlt sich da wie in einem verzauberten Walde; er hoert die unterirdischen Quellen melodisch rauschen; wildfremde Wunderblumen schauen ihn an mit ihren bunten sehnsuechtigen Augen; unsichtbare Lippen kuessen seine Wangen mit neckender Zaertlichkeit; _hohe Pilze, wie goldne Glocken, wachsen klingend empor am Fusse der Baeume_"; and so on. Now that stroke of the _hohe Pilze_, the great funguses, would have been impossible to the tact and delicacy of a born lover of nature like the Celt; and could only have come from a German who has _hineinstudirt himself into natural magic. It is a crying false note, which carries us at once out of the world of nature-magic, and the breath of the woods, into the world of theatre-magic and the smell of gas and orange-peel.(Arnold.)

~Johann Ludwig Tieck~ (1773-1853) was one of the most prominent of the German romanticists. He was especially felicitous in the rehandling of the old German fairy tales. The passage quoted above is from Heine's _Germany_, Part II, book II, chap. II. The following is the translation of C.G. Leland, slightly altered: "In these compositions we feel a mysterious depth of meaning, a marvellous union with nature, especially with the realm of plants and stones. The reader seems to be in an enchanted forest; he hears subterranean springs and streams rustling melodiously and his own name whispered by the trees. Broad-leaved clinging plants wind vexingly about his feet, wild and strange wonderflowers look at him with vari-colored longing eyes, invisible lips kiss his cheeks with mocking tenderness, great funguses like golden bells grow singing about the roots of trees."

(278) _Winter's Tale_, IV, iii, 118-20.

(279) Arnold doubtless refers to the passage in _The Solitary Reaper referred to in a similar connection in the essay on Maurice de Guerin, though Wordsworth has written two poems _To the Cuckoo_.

(280) The passage on the mountain birch-tree, which is quoted in the essay on Maurice de Guerin, is from Senancour's _Obermann_, letter 11. For his delicate appreciation of the Easter daisy see _Obermann_, letter 91.

PAGE 188

(281). Pope's _Iliad_, VIII, 687.

(282) Propertius, _Elegies_, book I, 20, 21-22: "The band of heroes covered the pleasant beach with leaves and branches woven together."

(283) _Idylls_, XIII, 34. The present reading of the line gives(Greek: hekeito, mega): "A meadow lay before them, very good for beds."

(284) From the _Ode to a Grecian Urn_.

PAGE 189

(285) That is, _Dedication_.

(286) From the _Ode to a Nightingale_.

(287) _Ibid._

PAGE 190

(288) Virgil, _Eclogues_, VII, 45.

(289) _Ibid._, II, 47-48: "Plucking pale violets and the tallest poppies, she joins with them the narcissus and the flower of the fragrant dill."

(290) _Ibid._, II, 51-52: "I will gather quinces, white with delicate down, and chestnuts."

(291) _Midsummer Night's Dream_, II, i, 249-52.

(292) _Merchant of Venice_, V, i, 58-59.

(293) _Midsummer Night's Dream_, II, i, 83-85.

PAGE 191

(294) _Merchant of Venice_, V, i, 1 ff.

GEORGE SAND

PAGE 192

(295) Reprinted from the _Fortnightly Review for June, 1877, in _Mixed Essays_, Smith, Elder & Co., 1879. ~Amandine Lucile Aurore Dudevant~, nee ~Dupin~ (1804-76), was the most prolific woman writer of France. The pseudonym ~George Sand~ was a combination of George, the typical Berrichon name, and Sand, abbreviated from (Jules) Sandeau, in collaboration with whom she began her literary career.

(296) ~Indiana~, George Sand's first novel, 1832.

(297) ~Nohant~ is a village of Berry, one of the ancient provinces of France, comprising the modern departments of Cher and Indre. The ~Indre~ and the ~Creuse~ are its chief rivers. ~Vierzon, Chateauroux, Le Chatre~, and ~Ste.-Severe~ are towns of the province. ~Le Puy~ is in the neighboring department of Haute-Loire, and ~La Marche~ is in the department of Vosges. For the ~Vallee Noire~ see Sand's _The Miller of Angibault_, chap. III, etc.

(298) ~Jeanne~. The first of a series of novels in which the pastoral element prevails. It was published in 1844.

(299) The ~Pierres Jaunatres~ (or ~Jomatres~) is a district in the mountains of the Creuse (see _Jeanne, Prologue_). ~Touix Ste.-Croix~ is a ruined Gallic town (_Jeanne_, chap. I). For the druidical stones of ~Mont Barlot~ see _Jeanne_, chap. VII.

PAGE 193

(300) ~Cassini's great map~. A huge folio volume containing 183 charts of the various districts of France, published by Mess. Maraldi and Cassini de Thury, Paris, 1744.

(301) For an interesting description of the patache, or rustic carriage, see George Sand's _Miller of Angibault_, chap. II.

(302) ~landes~. An infertile moor.

PAGE 194

(303) ~Maurice and Solange~. See, for example, the _Letters of a Traveller_.

(304) ~Chopin~. George Sand's friendship for the composer Chopin began in 1837.

PAGE 195

(305) ~Jules Michelet~ (1798-1874), French historian.

(306) ~her death~. George Sand died at Nohant, June 8, 1876.

PAGE 196

(307). From the _Journal d'un Voyageur_, September 15, 1870, ed. 1871, p. 2.

(308) ~Consuelo~ (1842-44) is George Sand's best-known novel.

(309) ~Edmee, Genevieve, Germain~. Characters in the novels _Mauprat, Andre_, and _La Mare au Diable_.

(310) ~Lettres d'un Voyageur, Mauprat, Francois le Champi~. Published in 1830-36, 1836, and 1848.

(311) ~F.W.H. Myers~ (1843-1901), poet and essayist. See his _Essays, Modern_, ed. 1883, pp. 70-103.

PAGE 197

(312) ~Valvedre~. Published in 1861.

(313) ~Werther~. See _The Contribution of the Celts, Selections_, Note 1, p. 182.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 263 in this e-text.)

(314) ~Corinne~. An esthetic romance (1807) by Mme. de Stael.

(315) ~Valentine~ (1832), George Sand's second novel, pointed out "the dangers and pains of an ill-assorted marriage." ~Lelia~ (1833) was a still more outspoken diatribe against society and the marriage law.

PAGE 199

(316) From _Lelia_, chap. LXVII.

(317) ~Jacques~ (1834), the hero of which is George Sand in man's disguise, sets forth the author's doctrine of free love.

(318) From _Jacques_, letter 95.

PAGE 200

(319) From _Lettres d'un Voyageur_, letter 9.

(320) _Ibid._, a Rollinat, September, 1834.

PAGE 203

(321) ~Hans Holbein~, the younger (1497-1543), German artist.

PAGE 205

(322) From _La Mare au Diable_, chap. 1.

(323) _Ibid._, _The Author to the Reader_.

PAGE 206

(324) _Ibid._, chap. 1.

PAGE 207

(325) _Ibid._, chap. 1.

PAGE 208

(326) From _Impressions et Souvenirs_, ed. 1873, p. 135.

(327) _Ibid._, p. 137.

(328) From Wordsworth's _Lines Composed a few Miles above Tintern Abbey_.

(329) From _Impressions et Souvenirs_, p. 136.

PAGE 209

(330) _Ibid._, p. 139.

PAGE 210

(331) _Ibid._, p. 269.

(332) _Ibid._, p. 253.

PAGE 211

(333) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, p. 29.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 29 in this e-text.)

(334) ~Emile Zola~ (1840-1902), French novelist, was the apostle of the "realistic" or "naturalistic" school. _L'Assommoir (1877) depicts especially the vice of drunkenness.

PAGE 212

(335) From _Journal d'un Voyageur_, February 10, 1871, p. 305.

(336) ~Emile Louis Victor de Laveleye~ (1822-92), Belgian economist. He was especially interested in bimetallism, primitive property, and nationalism.

PAGE 213

(337) From _Journal d'un Voyageur_, December 21, 1870, p. 202.

PAGE 214

(338) _Ibid._, December 21, 1870, p. 220.

PAGE 215

(339) _Ibid._, February 7, 1871, p. 228.

(340) _Round my House: Notes of Rural Life in France in Peace and War (1876), by ~Philip Gilbert Hamerton~. See especially chapters XI and XII.

(341) ~Barbarians, Philistines, Populace~. Arnold's designations for the aristocratic, middle, and lower classes of England in _Culture and Anarchy_.

PAGE 216

(342) ~Paul Amand Challemel-Lacour~ (1827-96), French statesman and man of letters.

(343) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, Note 4, p. 44. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 54 in this e-text.)

(344) From _Journal d'un Voyageur_, February 10, 1871, p. 309.

PAGE 217

(345) The closing sentence of the Nicene Creed with _expecto changed to _exspectat_. For the English translation see Morning Prayer in the Episcopal Prayer Book; for the Greek and Latin see Schaff, _Creeds of Christendom_, II, 58, 59.

WORDSWORTH)

PAGE 218

(346) Published in _Macmillan's Magazine_, July, 1879, vol. XL; as Preface to _The Poems of Wordsworth_, chosen and edited by Arnold in 1879; and in _Essays in Criticism_, Second Series, 1888.

PAGE 219

(347) ~Rydal Mount~. Wordsworth's home in the Lake District from 1813 until his death in 1850.

(348) ~1842~. The year of publication of the two-volume edition of Tennyson's poems, containing _Locksley Hall_, _Ulysses_, etc.

PAGE 221

(349) ~candid friend~. Arnold himself.

PAGE 222

(350) The _Biographie Universelle, ou Dictionnaire historique of F.X. de Feller (1735-1802) was originally published in 1781.

(351) ~Henry Cochin~. A brilliant lawyer and writer of Paris, 1687-1747.

PAGE 223

(352) ~Amphictyonic Court~. An association of Ancient Greek communities centering in a shrine.

PAGE 224

(353) ~Gottlieb Friedrich Klopstock~ (1724-1803) was author of _Der Messias_.

(354) ~Lessing~. See _Sweetness and Light, Selections_, Note 2, p. 271.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 427 in this e-text.)

(355) ~Johann Ludwig Uhland~ (1787-1862), romantic lyric poet.

(356) ~Friedrich Rueckert~ (1788-1866) was the author of _Liebesfruehling and other poems.

(357) ~Heine~. See _Heinrich Heine, Selections_, pp. 112-144.

(358) The greatest poems of ~Vicenzo da Filicaja~ (1642-1707) are six odes inspired by the victory of Sobieski.

(359) ~Vittorio, Count Alfieri~ (1749-1803), Italian dramatist. His best-known drama is his _Saul_.

(360) ~Manzoni~ (1785-1873) was a poet and novelist, author of _I Promessi Sposi_.

(361) ~Giacomo, Count Leopardi~ (1798-1837), Italian poet. His writings are characterized by deep-seated melancholy.

(362) ~Jean Racine~ (1639-99), tragic dramatist.

(363) ~Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux~ (1636-1711), poet and critic.

(364) ~Andre de Chenier~ (1762-94), poet, author of _Jeune Captive_, etc.

(365) ~Pierre Jean de Beranger~ (1780-1857), song-writer.

(366) ~Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine~ (1790-1869), poet, historian, and statesman.

(367) ~Louis Charles Alfred de Musset~ (1810-57), poet, play-writer, and novelist.

PAGE 228

(368) From _The Recluse_, l. 754.

PAGE 229

(369) _Paradise Lost_, XI, 553-54.

PAGE 230

(370) _The Tempest_, IV, i, 156-58.

(371) ~criticism of life~. See _The Study of Poetry, Selections_, Note 1, p. 57.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 66 in this e-text.)

PAGE 231

(372) _Discourses of Epictetus, trans. Long, 1903, vol. I, book II, chap. XXIII, p. 248.

PAGE 232

(373) ~Theophile Gautier~. A noted French poet, critic, and novelist, and a leader of the French Romantic Movement (1811-72).

(374) _The Recluse_, ll. 767-71.

(375) _AEneid_, VI, 662.

PAGE 233

(376) ~Leslie Stephen~. English biographer and literary critic (1832-1904). He was the first editor of the _Dictionary of National Biography_. Arnold quotes from the essay on _Wordsworth's Ethics in _Hours in a Library (1874-79), vol. III.

(377) _Excursion_, IV, 73-76.

PAGE 234

(378) _Ibid._, II, 10-17.

(379) _Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood_.

PAGE 235

(380) _Excursion_, IX, 293-302.

PAGE 236

(381) See p. 232.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 373 in this e-text.)

PAGE 237

(382) ~the "not ourselves."~ Arnold quotes his own definition of God as "the enduring power, not ourselves, which makes for righteousness." See _Literature and Dogma_, chap. I.

(383) The opening sentence of a famous criticism of the _Excursion published in the _Edinburgh Review for November, 1814, no. 47. It was written by ~Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey~ (1773-1850), Scottish judge and literary critic, and first editor of the _Edinburgh Review_.

PAGE 238

(384) _Macbeth_, III, ii.

(385) _Paradise Lost_, VII, 23-24.

(386) _The Recluse_, l. 831.

PAGE 239

(387) From Burns's _A Bard's Epitaph_.

PAGE 240

(388) The correct title is _The Solitary Reaper_.

SWEETNESS AND LIGHT

PAGE 242

(389) This selection is the first chapter of _Culture and Anarchy_. It originally formed a part of the last lecture delivered by Arnold as Professor of Poetry at Oxford. _Culture and Anarchy was first printed in _The Cornhill Magazine_, July 1867,-August, 1868, vols. XVI-XVIII. It was published as a book in 1869.

(390) For ~Sainte-Beuve~, see _The Study of Poetry, Selections_, Note 2, p. 56.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 65 in this e-text.) The article referred to appeared in the _Quarterly Review for January, 1866, vol. CXIX, p. 80. It finds fault with Sainte-Beuve's lack of conclusiveness, and describes him as having "spent his life in fitting his mind to be an elaborate receptacle for well-arranged doubts." In this respect a comparison is made with Arnold's "graceful but perfectly unsatisfactory essays."

PAGE 243

(391) From Montesquieu's _Discours sur les motifs qui doivent nous encourager aux sciences, prononce le 15 Novembre, 1725_. Montesquieu's _Oeuvres completes_, ed. Laboulaye, VII, 78.

PAGE 244

(392) ~Thomas Wilson~ (1663-1755) was consecrated Bishop of Sodor and Man in 1698. His episcopate was marked by a number of reforms in the Isle of Man. The opening pages of Arnold's _Preface to _Culture and Anarchy are devoted to an appreciation of Wilson. He says: "On a lower range than the _Imitation_, and awakening in our nature chords less poetical and delicate, the _Maxims of Bishop Wilson are, as a religious work, far more solid. To the most sincere ardor and unction, Bishop Wilson unites, in these _Maxims_, that downright honesty and plain good sense which our English race has so powerfully applied to the divine impossibilities of religion; by which it has brought religion so much into practical life, and has done its allotted part in promoting upon earth the kingdom of God."

(393) ~will of God prevail~. _Maxim 450 reads: "A prudent Christian will resolve at all times to sacrifice his inclinations to reason, and his reason to the will and word of God."

PAGE 247

(394) From Bishop Wilson's _Sacra Privata_, Noon Prayers, _Works_, ed. 1781, I, 199.

PAGE 248

(395) ~John Bright~ (1811-89) was a leader with Cobden in the agitation for repeal of the Corn Laws and other measures of reform, and was one of England's greatest masters of oratory.

(396) ~Frederic Harrison~ (1831-), English jurist and historian, was president of the English Positivist Committee, 1880-1905. His _Creed of a Layman (1907) is a statement of his religious position.

PAGE 249

(397) See _The Function of Criticism, Selections_, Note 2, p. 37. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 38 in this e-text.)

PAGE 253

(398) 1 Tim., IV, 8.

(399) The first of the "Rules of Health and Long Life" in _Poor Richard's Almanac for December, 1742. The quotation should read: "as the Constitution of thy Body allows of."

(400) Epictetus, _Encheiridion_, chap. XLI.

(401) ~Sweetness and Light~. The phrase is from Swift's _The Battle of the Books, Works_, ed. Scott, 1824, X, 240. In the apologue of the Spider and the Bee the superiority of the ancient over the modern writers is thus summarized: "Instead of dirt and poison we have rather chose to fill our hives with honey and wax, thus furnishing mankind with the two noblest of things, which are sweetness and light."

PAGE 256

(402) ~Independents~. The name applied in England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the denomination now known as Congregationalists.

(403) From Burke's Speech on _Conciliation with America, Works_, ed. 1834, I, 187.

(404) 1 Pet., III, 8.

PAGE 258

(405) ~Epsom~. A market town in Surrey, where are held the famous Derby races, founded in 1780.

PAGE 259

(406) Sallust's _Catiline_, chap. LII, Sec. 22.

(407) The ~Daily Telegraph~ was begun in June, 1855, as a twopenny newspaper. It became the great organ of the middle classes and has been distinguished for its enterprise in many fields. Up to 1878 it was consistently Liberal in politics. It is a frequent object of Arnold's irony as the mouthpiece of English philistinism.

PAGE 261

(408) ~Young Leo~ (or ~Leo Adolescens~) is Arnold's name for the typical writer of the _Daily Telegraph (see above). He is a prominent character of _Friendship's Garland_.

PAGE 262

(409) ~Edmond Beales~ (1803-81), political agitator, was especially identified with the movement for manhood suffrage and the ballot, and was the leading spirit in two large popular demonstrations in London in 1866.

(410) ~Charles Bradlaugh~ (1833-91), freethought advocate and politician. His efforts were especially directed toward maintaining the freedom of the press in issuing criticisms on religious belief and sociological questions. In 1880 he became a Member of Parliament, and began a long and finally successful struggle for the right to take his seat in Parliament without the customary oath on the Bible.

(411) ~John Henry Newman~ (1801-90) was the leader of the Oxford Movement in the English Church. His _Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864) was a defense of his religious life and an account of the causes which led him from Anglicanism to Romanism. For his hostility to Liberalism see the _Apologia_, ed. 1907, pp. 34, 212, and 288.

(412) _AEneid_, I, 460.

PAGE 263

(413) ~The Reform Bill of 1832~ abolished fifty-six "rotten" boroughs and made other changes in representation to Parliament, thus transferring a large share of political power from the landed aristocracy to the middle classes.

(414) ~Robert Lowe~ (1811-92), afterwards Viscount Sherbrooke, held offices in the Board of Education and Board of Trade. He was liberal, but opposed the Reform Bill of that party in 1866-67. His speeches on the subject were printed in 1867.

PAGE 266

(415) ~Jacobinism~. The _Societe des Jacobins was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. Later the term ~Jacobin~ was applied to any promulgator of extreme revolutionary or radical opinions.

(416) See _ante_, Note 2, p. 248.

(417) ~Auguste Comte~ (1798-1857), French philosopher and founder of Positivism. This system of thought attempts to base religion on the verifiable facts of existence, opposes devotion to the study of metaphysics, and substitutes the worship of Humanity for supernatural religion.

(418) ~Richard Congreve~ (1818-99) resigned a fellowship at Oxford in 1855, and devoted the remainder of his life to the propagation of the Positive philosophy.

PAGE 267

(419) ~Jeremy Bentham~ (1748-1832), philosopher and jurist, was leader of the English school of Utilitarianism, which recognizes "the greatest happiness of the greatest number" as the proper foundation of morality and legislation.

(420) ~Ludwig Preller~ (1809-61), German philologist and antiquarian.

PAGE 268

(421) ~Book of Job~. Arnold must have read Franklin's piece hastily, since he has mistaken a bit of ironic trifling for a serious attempt to rewrite the Scriptures. The _Proposed New Version of the Bible is merely a bit of amusing burlesque in which six verses of the Book of Job are rewritten in the style of modern politics. According to Mr. William Temple Franklin the _Bagatelles_, of which the _Proposed New Version is a part, were "chiefly written by Dr. Franklin for the amusement of his intimate society in London and Paris." See Franklin's _Complete Works_, ed. 1844, II, 164.

(422) ~The Deontology~, or _The Science of Morality_, was arranged and edited by John Bowring, in 1834, two years after Bentham's death, and it is doubtful how far it represents Bentham's thoughts.

(423) ~Henry Thomas Buckle~ (1821-62) was the author of the _History of Civilization in England_, a book which, though full of inaccuracies, has had a great influence on the theory and method of historical writing.

(424) ~Mr. Mill~. See _Marcus Aurelius, Selections_, Note 2, p. 145. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 183 in this e-text.)

PAGE 269

(425) The article from which Arnold quotes these extracts is not Frederic Harrison's _Culture: A Dialogue_, but an earlier essay in the _Fortnightly Review for March 1, 1867, called _Our Venetian Constitution_, See pages 276-77 of the article.

PAGE 271

(426) ~Peter Abelard~ (1079-1142) was a scholastic philosopher and a leader in the more liberal thought of his day.

(427) ~Gotthold Ephraim Lessing~ (1729-81), German critic and dramatist. His best-known writings are the epoch-making critical work, _Laokooen (1766), and the drama _Minna van Barnhelm (1767). His ideas were in the highest degree stimulating and fruitful to the German writers who followed him.

(428) ~Johann Gottfried von Herder~ (1744-1803), a voluminous and influential German writer, was a pioneer of the Romantic Movement. He championed adherence to the national type in literature, and helped to found the historical method in literature and science.

PAGE 272

(429) _Confessions of St. Augustine_, XIII, 18, 22, Everyman's Library ed., p. 326.

HEBRAISM AND HELLENISM

PAGE 273

(430) The present selection comprises chapter IV, of _Culture and Anarchy_. In the preceding chapter Arnold has been pointing out the imperfection of the various classes of English society, which he describes as "Barbarians, Philistines, and Populace." For the correction of this imperfection he pleads for "some public recognition and establishment of our best self, or right reason." In chapter III, he has shown how "our habits and practice oppose themselves to such a recognition." He now proposes to find, "beneath our actual habits and practice, the very ground and cause out of which they spring." Then follows the selection here given.

Professor Gates has pointed out the fact that Arnold probably borrows the terms here contrasted from Heine. In _Ueber Ludwig Boerne (_Werke_, ed. Stuttgart, X, 12), Heine says: "All men are either Jews or Hellenes, men ascetic in their instincts, hostile to culture, spiritual fanatics, or men of vigorous good cheer, full of the pride of life, Naturalists." For Heine's own relation to Hebraism and Hellenism, see the present selection, p. 275.

(431) See _Sweetness and Light, Selections_, Note 1, p. 244. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 392 in this e-text.) _Maxim 452 reads: "Two things a Christian will never do--never go against the best light he has, this will prove his sincerity, and, 2, to take care that his light be not darkness, i.e., that he mistake not his rule by which he ought to go."

PAGE 274

(432) 2 Pet. I, 4.

(433) ~Frederick William Robertson~ (1816-53) began his famous ministry at Brighton in 1847. He was a man of deep spirituality and great sincerity. The latter part of his life was clouded by opposition roused by his sympathy with the revolutionary ideas of the 1848 epoch and by the mental trouble which eventually resulted in his death. The sermon referred to seems to be the first Advent Lecture on _The Greek_. Arnold objects to Robertson's rather facile summarizing. Four characteristics are mentioned as marking Grecian life and religion: restlessness, worldliness, worship of the beautiful, and worship of the human. The second of these has three results, disappointment, degradation, disbelief in immortality.

PAGE 275

(434) ~Heinrich Heine~. See _Heine, Selections_, pp. 112-144. (Transcriber's note: This section begins at the text reference for Footnote 135 in this e-text.)

(435) Prov. XXIX, 18.

(436) Ps. CXII, 1.

PAGE 277

(437) Rom. III, 31.

(438) Zech. IX, 13.

(439) Prov. XVI, 22.

(440) John I, 4-9; 8-12; Luke II, 32, etc.

(441) John VIII, 32.

(442) _Nichomachaean Ethics_, bk. II, chap. III.

(443) Jas. I, 25.

(444) _Discourses of Epictetus_, bk. II, chap. XIX, trans. Long, I, 214 ff.

PAGE 278

(445) ~Learning to die~. Arnold seems to be thinking of _Phaedo_, 64, _Dialogues_, II, 202: "For I deem that the true votary of philosophy is likely to be misunderstood by other men; they do not perceive that he is always pursuing death and dying; and if this be so, and he has had the desire of death all his life long, why when his time comes should he repine at that which he has been always pursuing and desiring?" Plato goes on to show that life is best when it is most freed from the concerns of the body. Cf. also _Phaedrus (_Dialogues_, II, 127) and _Gorgias (_Dialogues_, II, 369).

(446) 2 Cor. V, 14.

(447) See Aristotle, _Nichomachaean Ethics_, bk. X, chaps. VIII, IX.

(448) _Phaedo_, 82D, _Dialogues_, I, 226.

PAGE 279

(449) Xenophon's _Memorabilia_, bk. IV, chap. VIII, Sec. 6.

PAGE 280

(450) ~Edward Bouverie Pusey~ (1800-82), English divine and leader of the High Church party in the Oxford Movement.

PAGE 281

(451) Zech. VIII, 23.

(452) ~my Saviour banished joy~. The sentence is an incorrect quotation from George Herbert's _The Size_, the fifth stanza of which begins:--

"Thy Savior sentenced joy,
And in the flesh condemn'd it as unfit,--
At least in lump."

(453) Eph. V, 6.

PAGE 282

(454) The first two books.(Arnold.)

(455) See Rom. III, 2.

(456) See Cor. III, 19.

PAGE 283

(457) ~Phaedo~. In this dialogue Plato attempts to substantiate the doctrine of immortality by narrating the last hours of Socrates and his conversation on this subject when his own death was at hand.

PAGE 284

(458) ~Renascence~. I have ventured to give to the foreign word _Renaissance_--destined to become of more common use amongst us as the movement which it denotes comes, as it will come, increasingly to interest us,--an English form.(Arnold.)

EQUALITY

PAGE 289

(459) This essay, originally an address delivered at the Royal Institution, was published in the _Fortnightly Review_, for March, 1878, and reprinted in _Mixed Essays_, 1879. In the present selection the opening pages have been omitted. Arnold begins with a statement of England's tendency to maintain a condition of inequality between classes. This is reinforced by the English freedom of bequest, a freedom greater than in most of the Continental countries. The question of the advisability of altering the English law of bequest is a matter not of abstract right, but of expediency. That the maintenance of inequality is expedient for English civilization and welfare is generally assumed. Whether or not this assumption is well founded, Arnold proposes to examine in the concluding pages. As a preliminary step he defines civilization as the humanization of man in society. Then follows the selected passage.

(460) ~Isocrates~. An Attic orator (436-338 B.C.). He was an ardent advocate of Greek unity. The passage quoted occurs in the _Panegyricus_, Sec. 50, _Orations_, ed. 1894, p. 67.

PAGE 290

(461) ~Giacomo Antonelli~ (1806-76), Italian cardinal. From 1850 until his death his activity was chiefly devoted to the struggle between the Papacy and the Italian Risorgimento.

PAGE 291

(462) ~famous passage~. The _Introduction to his _Age of Louis XIV_.

PAGE 293

(463) ~Laveleye~. See _George Sand_, _Selections_, Note 2, p. 212. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 336 in this e-text.)

(464) ~Sir Thomas Erskine May, Lord Farnborough~ (1815-86), constitutional jurist. Arnold in the omitted portion of the present essay has quoted several sentences from his _History of Democracy_: "France has aimed at social equality. The fearful troubles through which she has passed have checked her prosperity, demoralised her society, and arrested the intellectual growth of her people. Yet is she high, if not the first, in the scale of civilised nations."

(465) ~Hamerton~. See _George Sand_, _Selections_, Note 2, p. 215. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 340 in this e-text.) The quotation is from _Round My House_, chap, XI, ed. 1876, pp. 229-30.

PAGE 294

(466) ~Charles Sumner~ (1811-74), American statesman, was the most brilliant and uncompromising of the anti-slavery leaders.

PAGE 295

(467) ~Alsace~. The people of Alsace, though German in origin, showed a very strong feeling against Prussian rule in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. In September, 1872, 45,000 elected to be still French and transferred their domicile to France.

PAGE 296

(468) ~Michelet~. See _George Sand_, _Selections_, Note 1, p. 195. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 305 in this e-text.)

PAGE 298

(469) The chorus of a popular music-hall song of the time. From it was derived the word _jingoism_. For the original application of this term see Webster's _Dictionary_.

(470) ~Dwight L. Moody~ (1837-99) and ~Ira D. Sankey~ (1840-1908), the famous American evangelists, held notable revival meetings in England in 1873-75.

PAGE 299

(471) See, e.g., _Heine_, _Selections_, p. 129.(Transcriber's note: This approximates to the section following the text reference for Footnote 154 in this e-text.)

(472) ~Goldwin Smith~. See Note 2, p. 301.

PAGE 301

(473) See Milton's _Colasterion_, _Works_, ed. 1843, III, 445 and 452.

(474) ~Goldwin Smith~ (1824-1910), British publicist and historian, has taken an active part in educational questions both in England and America. The passage quoted below is from an article entitled _Falkland and the Puritans_, published in the _Contemporary Review as a reply to Arnold's essay on Falkland. See _Lectures and Essays_, New York, 1881.

(475) ~John Hutchinson~ (1616-64), Puritan soldier. The _Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson_, written by his wife Lucy, but not published until 1806, are remarkable both for the picture which they give of the man and the time, and also for their simple beauty of style. For the passage quoted see Everyman's Library ed., pp. 182-83.

(476) ~paedobaptism~. Infant baptism.

PAGE 303

(477) Man disquiets himself, but God manages the matter. For ~Bossuet~ see _The Function of Criticism_, _Selections_, Note 2, p. 49. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 60 in this e-text.)

(478) Prov. XIX, 21.

(479) So in the original.(Arnold.)

PAGE 304

(480) ~Bright~. See _Sweetness and Light_, _Selections_, Note 1, p. 248.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 395 in this e-text.)

(481) ~Richard Cobden~ (1804-65), English manufacturer and Radical politician. He was a leader in the agitation for repeal of the Corn Laws and in advocacy of free trade.

PAGE 305

(482) Prov. XIV, 6.

(483) Compare _Culture and Anarchy_, chaps. II and III, and _Ecce Convertimur ad Gentes, Irish Essays_, ed. 1903, p. 115.

PAGE 307

(484) ~Samuel Pepys~ (1633-1703), English diarist.

PAGE 310

(485) ~young lion~. See _Sweetness and Light_, _Selections_, Note 1, p. 261.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 408 in this e-text.)

PAGE 312

(486) ~Mill~. See _Marcus Aurelius_, _Selections_, Note 2, p. 145. (Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 183 in this e-text.)

(487) ~Spencer Compton Cavendish~ (1833-1908), Marquis of ~Hartington~ (since 1891 Duke of Devonshire), became Liberal leader in the House of Commons after the defeat and withdrawal of Gladstone in January, 1875.

PAGE 313

(488) ~Menander~. See _Contribution of the Celts_, _Selections_, Note 3, p. 177.(Transcriber's note: This is Footnote 255 in this e-text.)


(THE END)
Matthew Arnold's Book: Selections from the Prose Works of Matthew Arnold

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