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Full Online Book HomeNonfictionsNarrative Of The Voyages Round The World, Performed By Captain James Cook - Chapter IV. Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775
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Narrative Of The Voyages Round The World, Performed By Captain James Cook - Chapter IV. Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775 Post by :infinityrose Category :Nonfictions Author :Andrew Kippis Date :February 2011 Read :1913

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Narrative Of The Voyages Round The World, Performed By Captain James Cook - Chapter IV. Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775

On the 13th of July, Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth, and on the
29th of the same month anchored in Funchiale Road, in the island of
Madeira. Having obtained a supply of water, wine, and other
necessaries at that island, he left it on the 1st of August, and
sailed to the southward. As he proceeded in his voyage, he made three
puncheons of beer of the inspissated juice of malt; and the liquor
produced was very brisk and drinkable. The heat of the weather, and
the agitation of the ship, had hitherto withstood all the endeavours
of our people to prevent this juice from being in a high state of
fermentation. If it could be kept from fermenting, it would be a most
valuable article at sea.

The captain, having found that his stock of water would not last to
the Cape of Good Hope, without putting his men to a scanty allowance,
resolved to stop at St. Jago, one of the Cape de Verd islands, for a
supply. At Port Praya, in this island, he anchored on the 10th of
August, and by the 14th had completed his water, and procured some
other refreshments; upon which he set sail and prosecuted his course.
He embraced the occasion, which his touching at St. Jago afforded him,
of giving such a delineation and description of Port Praya, and of the
supplies there to be obtained, as might be of service to future
navigators.

On the 20th of the month, the rain poured down upon our voyagers, not
in drops but in streams; and the wind at the same time being variable
and rough, the people were obliged to attend so constantly upon the
decks, that few of them escaped being completely soaked. This
circumstance is mentioned, to show the method that was taken by
Captain Cook to preserve his men from the evil consequences of the wet
to which they had been exposed. He had every thing to fear from the
rain, which is a great promoter of sickness in hot climates. But to
guard against this effect, he pursued some hints that had been
suggested to him by Sir Hugh Palliser and Captain Campbell, and took
care that the ship should be aired and dried with fires made between
the decks, and that the damp places of the vessel should be smoked;
beside which the people were ordered to air their bedding and to wash
and dry their clothes, whenever there was an opportunity. The result
of these precautions was, that there was not one sick person on board
the Resolution.

Captain Cook, on the 8th of September, crossed the line in the
longitude of 8 west, and proceeded, without meeting anything
remarkable, till the 11th of October. When at 6h. 24m. 12s. by Mr.
Kendal's watch, the moon rose about four digits eclipsed; soon after
which the gentlemen prepared to observe the end of the eclipse. The
observers were, the captain himself, and Mr. Forster, Mr. Wales, Mr.
Pickersgill, Mr. Gilbert, and Mr. Harvey.

Our commander had been informed, before he left England, that he
sailed at an improper season of the year, and that he should meet with
much calm weather, near and under the line. But though such weather
may happen in some years, it is not always, or even generally to be
expected. So far was it from being the case with Captain Cook, that he
had a brisk south-west wind in those very latitudes where the calms
had been predicted: nor was he exposed to any of the tornadoes, which
are so much spoken of by other navigators. On the 29th of the month,
between eight and nine o'clock at night, when our voyagers were near
the Cape of Good Hope, the whole sea, within the compass of their
sight, became at once, as it were, illuminated. The captain had been
formerly convinced, by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, that such
appearances in the ocean were occasioned by insects. Mr. Forster,
however, seemed disposed to adopt a different opinion. To determine
the question, our commander ordered some buckets of water to be drawn
up from alongside the ship, which were found full of an innumerable
quantity of small globular insects, about the size of a common pin's
head, and quite transparent. Though no life was perceived in them,
there could be no doubt of their being living animals, when in their
own proper element: and Mr. Forster became now well satisfied that
they were the cause of the sea's illumination.

On the 30th, the Resolution and Adventure anchored in Table Bay; soon
after which Captain Cook went on shore, and, accompanied by Captain
Furneaux, and the two Mr. Forsters, waited on Baron Plettenberg, the
governor of the Cape of Good Hope, who received the gentlemen with
great politeness, and promised them every assistance the place could
afford. From him our commander learned, that two French ships from the
Mauritius, about eight months before, had discovered land in the
latitude of 48 south, along which they sailed forty miles, till they
came to a bay, into which they were upon the point of entering, when
they were driven off, and separated in a hard gale of wind. Previously
to this misfortune, they had lost some of their boats and people, that
had been sent to sound the bay. Captain Cook was also informed by
Baron Plettenberg, that in the month of March, two other ships from
the island of Mauritius, had touched at the Cape in their way to the
South Pacific Ocean; where they were going to make discoveries, under
the command of M. Marion.

From the healthy condition of the crews, both of the Resolution and
Adventure, it was imagined by the captain that his stay at the Cape
would be very short. But the necessity of waiting till the requisite
provisions could be prepared and collected, kept him more than three
weeks at this place; which time was improved by him in ordering both
the ships to be caulked and painted, and in taking care that, in every
respect, their condition should be as good as when they left England.

On the 22d of November, our commander sailed from the Cape of Good
Hope, and proceeded on his voyage, in search of a southern continent.
Having gotten clear of the land, he directed his course for Cape
Circumcision; and, judging that cold weather would soon approach, he
ordered slops to be served to such of the people as were in want of
them, and gave to each man the fear-nought jacket and trowsers allowed
by the admiralty. On the 29th, the wind, which was west-north-west,
increased to a storm, that continued, with some few intervals of
moderate weather, till the 6th of December. By this gale, which was
attended with hail and rain, and which blew at times with such
violence that the ships could carry no sails, our voyagers were driven
far to the eastward of their intended course, and no hopes were left
to the captain of reaching Cape Circumcision. A still greater
misfortune was the loss of the principal part of the live stock on
board, consisting of sheep, hogs, and geese. At the same time, the
sudden transition from warm mild weather, to weather which was
extremely cold and wet, was so severely felt by our people, that it
was necessary to make some addition to their allowance of spirits, by
giving each of them a dram on particular occasions.

Our navigators, on the 10th of December, began to meet with islands of
ice. One of these islands was so much concealed from them by the
haziness of the weather, accompanied with snow and sleet, that they
were steering directly towards it, and did not see it till it was at a
less distance than that of a mile. Captain Cook judged it to be about
fifty feet high, and half a mile in circuit. It was flat at the top,
and its sides rose in a perpendicular direction, against which the sea
broke to a great height. The weather continuing to be hazy, the
captain, on account of the ice islands, was obliged to proceed with
the utmost caution. Six of them were passed on the 12th, some of which
were nearly two miles in circuit, and sixty feet high; nevertheless,
such were the force and height of the waves, that the sea broke quite
over them. Hence was exhibited a view, that for a few moments was
pleasing to the eye; but the pleasure was soon swallowed up in the
horror which seized upon the mind, from the prospect of danger. For if
a ship should be so unfortunate as to get on the weather side of one
of these islands, she would be dashed to pieces in a moment.

The vessels, on the 14th, were stopped by an immense field of low ice,
to which no end could be seen, either to the east, west, or south. In
different parts of this field were islands or hills of ice, like those
which our voyagers had found floating in the sea, and twenty of which
had presented themselves to view the day before. Some of the people on
board imagined that they saw land over the ice, and Captain Cook
himself at first entertained the same sentiment. But upon more
narrowly examining these ice hills, and the various appearances they
made when seen through the haze, he was induced to change his opinion.
On the 18th, though in the morning our navigators had been quite
imbayed, they were, notwithstanding, at length enabled to get clear of
the field of ice. They were, however, at the same time, carried in
among the ice islands, which perpetually succeeded one another; which
were almost equally dangerous; and the avoiding of which was a matter
of the greatest difficulty. But perilous as it is to sail in a thick
fog, among these floating rocks, as our commander properly called
them; this is preferable to the being entangled with immense fields of
ice under the same circumstances. In this latter case the great danger
to be apprehended, is the getting fast in the ice; a situation which
would be alarming in the highest degree.

It had been a generally received opinion, that such ice as hath now
been described, is formed in bays and rivers. Agreeably to this
supposition, our voyagers were led to believe that land was not far
distant, and that it lay to the southward behind the ice. As,
therefore, they had sailed above thirty leagues along the edge of the
ice, without finding a passage to the south, Captain Cook determined
to run thirty or forty leagues to the east, and afterward to endeavour
to get to the southward. If, in this attempt, he met with no land or
other impediment, his design was to stretch behind the ice, and thus
to bring the matter to a decision. The weather, at this time, affected
the senses with a feeling of cold much greater than that which was
pointed out by the thermometer, so that the whole crew complained. In
order the better to enable them to sustain the severity of the cold,
the Captain directed the sleeves of their jackets to be lengthened
with baize; and had a cap made for each man of the same stuff,
strengthened with canvass. These precautions greatly contributed to
their comfort and advantage. It is worthy of observation, that
although the weather was as sharp, on the 25th of December, as might
have been expected, in the same month of the year, in any part of
England, this was the middle of summer with our navigators. Some of
the people now appearing to have symptoms of the scurvy, fresh wort
was given them every day, prepared under the direction of the
surgeons, from the malt which had been provided for the purpose.

By the 29th, it became sufficiently ascertained, from the course our
commander had pursued, that the field of ice, along which the ships
had sailed, did not join to any land as had been conjectured. At this
time, Captain Cook came to a resolution, provided he met with no
impediment, to run as far west as the meridian of Cape Circumcision.
While he was prosecuting this design, a gale arose, on the 31st, which
brought with it such a sea, as rendered it very dangerous for the
vessels to remain among the ice; and the danger was increased by
discovering an immense field to the north, which extended farther than
the eye could reach. As our voyagers were not above two or three miles
from this field, and were surrounded by loose ice, there was no time
to deliberate. They hauled to the South; and though they happily got
clear, it was not till the ships had received several hard knocks from
the loose pieces, which were of the largest kind. On Friday, the 1st
of January, 1773, the gale abated; and on the next day, in the
afternoon, our people had the felicity of enjoying the sight of the
moon, the face of which had not been seen by them but once since they
had departed from the Cape of Good Hope. Hence a judgment may be
formed of the sort of weather they had been exposed to, from the time
of their leaving that place. The present opportunity was eagerly
seized, for making several observations of the sun and moon.

Captain Cook was now nearly in the same longitude which is assigned to
Cape Circumcision, and about ninety-five leagues to the south of the
latitude in which it is said to lie. At the same time the weather was
so clear, that land might have been seen at the distance of fourteen
or fifteen leagues. He concluded it, therefore, to be very probable,
that what Bouvet took for land was nothing but mountains of ice,
surrounded by loose or field ice. Our present navigators had naturally
been led into a similar mistake. The conjecture, that such ice as had
lately been seen was joined to land, was a very plausible one, though
not founded on fact. Upon the whole, there was good reason to believe,
that no land was to be met with, under this meridian, between the
latitude of fifty-five and fifty-nine, where some had been supposed to
exist.

Amidst the obstructions Captain Cook was exposed to, from the ice
islands which perpetually succeeded each other, he derived one
advantage from them, and that was, a supply of fresh water. Though the
melting and stowing away of the ice takes up some time, and is,
indeed, rather tedious, this method of watering is otherwise the most
expeditious our commander had ever known. The water produced was
perfectly sweet and well tasted. Upon the ice islands, penguins,
albatrosses, and other birds were frequently seen. It had hitherto
been the received opinion, that such birds never go far from land, and
that the sight of them is a sure indication of its vicinity. That this
opinion is not well founded, at least where ice islands exist, was now
evinced by multiplied experience.

By Sunday the 17th of January, Captain Cook reached the latitude of
67 15' south, when he could advance no farther. At this time the ice
was entirely closed to the south, in the whole extent from east to
west-south-west, without the least appearance of any opening. The
captain, therefore, thought it no longer prudent to persevere in
sailing southward; especially as the summer was already half spent,
and there was little reason to hope that it would be found practicable
get round the ice. Having taken this resolution, he determined to
proceed directly in search of the land which had lately been
discovered by the French; and as, in pursuing his purpose, the weather
was clear at intervals, he spread the ships abreast four miles from
each other, in order the better to investigate any thing that might
lie in their way. On the 1st of February our voyagers were in the
latitude of 48 30' south, and in longitude 58 7' east, nearly in the
meridian of the island of St. Mauritius. This was the situation in
which the land said to have been discovered by the French was to be
expected; but as no signs of it had appeared, our commander bore away
to the east. Captain Furneaux, on the same day, informed Captain Cook,
that he had just seen a large float of sea, or rock weed, and about it
several of the birds called divers. These were certain signs of the
vicinity of land, though whether it lay to the east or west could not
possibly be known. Our commander, therefore, formed the design of
proceeding in his present latitude four or five degrees of longitude
to the west of the meridian he was now in, and then to pursue his
researches eastward. The west and north-west winds, which had
continued for some days, prevented him from carrying this purpose into
execution. However, he was convinced from the perpetual high sea he
had lately met with, that there could be no great extent of land to
the west.

While Captain Cook, on the next day, was steering eastward, Captain
Furneaux told him that he thought the land was to the north-west of
them; as he had, at one time, observed the sea to be smooth, when the
wind blew in that direction. This observation was by no means
conformable to the remarks which had been made by our commander
himself. Nevertheless, such was his readiness to attend to every
suggestion, that he resolved to clear up the point, if the wind would
admit of his getting to the west in any reasonable time. The wind, by
veering to the north, did admit of his pursuing the search; and the
result of it was, his conviction that if any land was near, it could
only be an island of no considerable extent.

Captain Cook and his philosophical friends, while they were traversing
this part, of the southern ocean, paid particular attention to the
variation of the compass, which they found to be from 27 50' to 30
26' west. Probably the mean of the two extremes, viz. 29 4', was the
nearest the truth, as it coincided with the variation observed on
board the Adventure. One unaccountable circumstance is worthy of
notice, though it did not now occur for the first time. It is, that
when the sun was on the starboard of the ship, the variation was the
least; and when on the larboard side, the greatest.

On the 8th, our commander, in consequence of no signals having been
answered by the Adventure, had reason to apprehend that a separation
had taken place. After waiting two days, during which guns were kept
discharging, and false fires were burned in the night, the fact was
confirmed; so that the Resolution was obliged to proceed alone in her
voyage. As she pursued her course, penguins and other birds, from time
to time, appeared in great numbers; the meeting with which gave our
navigators some hopes of finding land, and occasioned various
speculations with regard to its situation. Experience, however,
convinced them, that no stress was to be laid on such hopes. They were
so often deceived, that they could no longer look upon any of the
oceanic birds, which frequent high latitudes, as sure signs of the
vicinity of land.

In the morning of the 17th, between midnight and three o'clock, lights
were seen in the heavens, similar to those which are known in the
northern hemisphere, by the name of the Aurora Borealis. Captain Cook
had never heard that an Aurora Australis had been seen before. The
officer of the watch observed, that it sometimes broke out in spiral
rays, and in a circular form; at which time, its light was very
strong, and its appearance beautiful. It was not perceived to have any
particular direction. On the contrary, at various times, it was
conspicuous in different parts of the heavens, and diffused its light
throughout the whole atmosphere.

On the 20th, our navigators imagined that they saw land to the
south-west. Their conviction of its real existence was so strong, that
they had no doubt of the matter; and accordingly they endeavoured to
work up to it, in doing which the weather was favourable to their
purpose. However what had been taken for land proved only to be
clouds, that in the evening entirely disappeared, and left a clear
horizon, in which nothing could be discerned but ice islands. At night
the Aurora Australis was again seen, and the appearance it assumed was
very brilliant and luminous. It first discovered itself in the east,
and in a short time spread over the whole heavens.

In the night of the 23rd, when the ship was in latitude 61 52' south,
and longitude 95 2' east, the weather being exceedingly stormy,
thick, and hazy, with sleet and snow, our voyagers were on every side
surrounded with danger. In such a situation it was natural for them to
wish for daylight: but daylight, when it came, served only to increase
their apprehensions, by exhibiting those huge mountains of ice to
their view, which the darkness had prevented them from seeing. These
unfavourable circumstances, at so advanced a season of the year,
discouraged Captain Cook from putting into execution a resolution he
had formed, of once more crossing the antarctic circle. Accordingly,
early in the morning of the 24th, he stood to the north, with a very
hard gale, and a very high sea, which made great destruction among the
ice islands. But so far was this incident from being of any advantage
to our navigators, that it greatly increased the number of pieces they
had to avoid. The large pieces, which broke from the ice islands, were
found to be much more dangerous than the islands themselves. While the
latter rose so high out of the water, that they could generally be
seen, unless the weather was very thick and hazy, before our people
nearly approached them, the others could not be discerned, in the
night, till they were under the ship's bows. These dangers, however,
were now become so familiar to the captain and his company, that the
apprehensions they caused were never of long duration; and a
compensation was, in some degree, made for them, by the seasonable
supplies of fresh water, which the ice islands afforded, and by their
very romantic appearance. The foaming and dashing of the waves into
the curious holes and caverns which were formed in many of them
greatly heightened the scene; and the whole exhibited a view, that at
once filled the mind with admiration and horror, and could only be
described by the hand of an able painter.

In sailing from the 25th to the 28th, the wind was accompanied with a
large hollow sea, which rendered Captain Cook certain, that no land,
of any considerable extent, could lie within a hundred or a hundred
and fifty leagues from east to south-west. Though this was still the
summer season in that part of the world, and the weather was become
somewhat warmer than it had been before, yet such were the effects of
the cold, that a sow having farrowed nine pigs in the morning, all of
them, notwithstanding the utmost care to prevent it, were killed
before four o'clock in the afternoon. From the same cause, the captain
himself and several of his people had their fingers and toes
chilblained. For some days afterward, the cold considerably abated;
but still it could not be said that there was summer weather,
according to our commander's ideas of summer in the northern
hemisphere, as far as sixty degrees of latitude, which was nearly as
far as he had then been.

As he proceeded on his voyage, from the 28th of February to the 11th
of March, he had ample reason to conclude, from the swell of the sea
and other circumstances, that there could be no land to the south, but
what must lie at a great distance.

The weather having been clear on the 13th and 14th, Mr. Wales had an
opportunity of getting some observations of the sun and moon; the
results of which, reduced to noon, when the latitude was 58 22'
south, gave 136 22' east longitude. Mr. Kendal's and Mr. Arnold's
watches gave each of them 134 42'; and this was the first and only
time in which they had pointed out the same longitude, since the ships
had departed from England. The greatest difference, however, between
them, since our voyagers had left the Cape, had not much exceeded two
degrees.

From the moderate, and what might almost be called pleasant weather,
which had occurred for two or three days, Captain Cook began to wish
that he had been a few degrees of latitude farther south; and he was
even tempted to incline his course that way. But he soon met with
weather which convinced him that he had proceeded full far enough; and
that the time was approaching when these seas could not be navigated
without enduring intense cold. As he advanced in his course, he became
perfectly assured, from repeated proofs, that he had left no land
behind him in the direction of west-south-west; and that no land lay
to the south on this side sixty degrees of latitude. He came,
therefore, to a resolution, on the 17th, to quit the high southern
latitudes, and to proceed to New Zealand, with a view of looking for
the Adventure, and of refreshing his people. He had, also, some
thoughts, and even a desire, of visiting the east coast of Van
Dieman's Land, in order to satisfy himself whether it joined the coast
of New South Wales. The wind however, not permitting him to execute
this part of his design, he shaped his course for New Zealand, in
sight of which he arrived on the 25th, and where he came to anchor on
the day following, in Dusky Bay. He had now been a hundred and
seventeen days at sea, during which time he had sailed three thousand
six hundred and sixty-leagues without having once come within sight of
land.

After so long a voyage, in a high southern latitude, it might
reasonably have been expected, that many of Captain Cook's people
would be ill of the scurvy. This, however, was not the case. So
salutary were the effects of the sweet wort, and several articles of
provision, and especially of the frequent airing and sweetening of the
ship, that there was only one man on board who could be said to be
much afflicted with the disease; and even in that man, it was chiefly
occasioned by a bad habit of body, and a complication of other
disorders.

As our commander did not like the place in which he had anchored, he
sent Lieutenant Pickersgill over to the south-east side of the bay, in
search of a better; and the lieutenant succeeded in finding a harbour
that was in every respect desirable. In the meanwhile, the
fishing-boat was very successful; returning with fish sufficient for
the whole crew's supper and in the morning of the next day, as many
were caught as served for dinner. Hence were derived certain hopes of
being plentifully supplied with this article. Nor did the shores and
woods appear more destitute of wild fowl; so that our people had the
prospect of enjoying, with ease, what, in their situation, might be
called the luxuries of life. These agreeable circumstances determined
Captain Cook to stay some time in the bay, in order to examine it
thoroughly; as no one had ever landed before on any of the southern
parts of New Zealand.

On the 27th, the ship entered Pickersgill Harbour; for so it was
called, from the name of the gentleman by whom it had first been
discovered. Here wood, for fuel and other purposes, was immediately at
hand; and a fine stream of fresh water was not above a hundred yards
from the stern of the vessel. Our voyagers, being thus advantageously
situated, began vigorously to prepare for their necessary occupations
by clearing places in the woods, in order to set up the astronomer's
observatory, and the forge for the iron work, and to erect tents for
the sailmakers and coopers. They applied themselves, also, to the
brewing of beer from the branches or leaves of a tree, which greatly
resembled the American black spruce. Captain Cook was persuaded, from
the knowledge which he had of this tree, and from the similarity it
bore to the spruce, that, with the addition of inspissated juice of
wort and molasses, it would make a very wholesome liquor, and supply
the want of vegetables, of which the country was destitute. It
appeared, by the event, that he was not mistaken in his judgment.

Several of the natives were seen on the 28th, who took little notice
of the English, and were very shy of access; and the captain did not
choose to force an intercourse with them, as he had been instructed,
by former experience, that the best method of obtaining was to leave
time and place to themselves. While our commander continued in his
present situation, he took every opportunity of examining the bay. As
he was prosecuting his survey of it, on the 6th of April, his
attention was directed to the north side, where he discovered a fine
capacious cove, in the bottom of which is a fresh-water river. On the
west side are several beautiful cascades; and the shores are so steep
that water might directly be conveyed from them into the ship.
Fourteen ducks, besides, other birds, having been shot in this place,
he gave it the name of Duck Cove. When he was returning in the
evening, he met with three of the natives, one man and two women,
whose fears he soon dissipated, and whom he engaged in a conversation,
that was little understood on either side. The youngest of the women
had a volubility of tongue that could not be exceeded; and she
entertained Captain Cook, and the gentlemen who accompanied him with a
dance.

By degrees, our commander obtained the good will and confidence of the
Indians. His presents, however, were at first received with much
indifference, hatchets and spike-nails excepted. At a visit, on the
12th, from a family of the natives, the captain, perceiving they
approached the ship with great caution, met them in a boat, which he
quitted when he came near them, and went into their canoe. After all,
he could not prevail upon them to go on board the Resolution; but at
length they put on shore in a little creek, and seating themselves
abreast the English vessel, entered into familiar conversation with
several of the officers and seamen; in which they paid a much greater
regard to some, whom they probably mistook for females, than to
others. So well indeed, were they now reconciled to our voyagers, that
they took up their quarters nearly within the distance of a hundred
yards from the ship's watering place. Captain Cook, in his interview
with them, had caused the bagpipes and fife to play, and the drum to
beat. The two former they heard with apparent insensibility; but the
latter excited in them a certain degree of attention.

On the 18th, a chief, with whom some connexions had already been
formed, was induced, together with his daughter, to come on board the
Resolution. Previously to his doing it, he presented the captain with
a piece of cloth and a green talk hatchet. He gave also a piece of
cloth to Mr. Forster; and the girl gave another to Mr. Hodges. Though
this custom of making presents, before any are received, is common
with the natives of the South Sea isles, our commander had never till
now seen it practised in New Zealand. Another thing performed by the
chief before he went on board was the taking of a small green branch
in his hand, with which he struck the ship's side several times,
repeating a speech or prayer. This manner, as it were, of making peace
is likewise prevalent among all the nations of the South Seas. When
the chief was carried into the cabin, he viewed every part of it with
some degree of surprise; but it was not possible to fix his attention
to any one object for a single moment. The works of art appeared to
him in the same light as those of nature, and were equally distant
from his powers of comprehension. He and his daughter seemed to be the
most struck with the number of the decks, and other parts of the ship.

As Captain Cook proceeded in examining Dusky Bay, he occasionally met
with some few more of the natives, with regard to whom he used every
mode of conciliation. On the 20th the chief and his family, who had
been more intimate with our navigators than any of the rest of the
Indians, went away, and never returned again. This was the more
extraordinary, as in all his visits he had been gratified with
presents. From different persons, he had gotten nine or ten hatchets,
and three or four times that number of large spike nails, besides a
variety of other articles. So far as these things might be deemed
riches in New Zealand, he was undoubtedly become by far the most
wealthy man in the whole country.

One employment of our voyagers, while in Dusky Bay, consisted in seal
hunting, an animal which was found serviceable for three purposes. The
skins were made use of for rigging, the fat afforded oil for the
lamps, and the flesh was eaten. On the 24th, the captain, having five
geese remaining of those he had brought with him from the Cape of Good
Hope, went and left them at a place to which he gave the name of Goose
Cove. This place he fixed upon for two reasons; first, because there
were no inhabitants to disturb them; and, secondly, because here was
the greatest supply of proper food; so that he had no doubt of their
breeding, hoped that in time they might spread over the whole country,
to its eminent advantage. Some days afterward, when everything
belonging to the ship had been removed from the shore, he set fire to
the top-wood in order to dry a piece of ground, which he dug up, and
sowed with several sorts of garden seeds. The soil, indeed, was not
such as to promise much success to the planter; but it was the best
that could be discovered.

The 25th of April was the eighth fair day our people had successively
enjoyed; and there was reason to believe that such a circumstance was
very uncommon in the place where they now lay, and at that season of
the year. This favourable weather afforded them the opportunity of
more speedily completing their wood and water, and of putting the ship
into a condition for sea. On the evening of the 25th, it began to
rain; and the weather was afterwards extremely variable, being, at
times, in a high degree wet, cold, and stormy. Nothing, however,
prevented Captain Cook from prosecuting, with his usual sagacity and
diligence, his search into every part of Dusky Bay; and, as there are
few places in New Zealand where necessary refreshments may be so
plentifully obtained, as in this bay, he hath taken care to give such
a description of it, and of the adjacent country, as may be of service
to succeeding navigators. Although this country lies far remote from
what is now the trading part of the world, yet, as he justly observes,
we can by no means tell what use future ages may derive from the
discoveries made in the present.

The various anchoring places are delineated on our commander's chart,
and the most convenient of them he has particularly described. Not
only about Dusky Bay, but through all the southern part of the western
coast of Tavai-poenammo, the country is exceedingly mountainous. A
prospect more rude and craggy is rarely to be met with; for, inland,
there are only to be seen the summits of mountains of a tremendous
height, and consisting of rocks that are totally barren and naked,
excepting where they are covered with snow. But the land which borders
on the sea-coast is thickly clothed with wood almost down to the
water's edge; and this is the case with regard to all the adjoining
islands. The trees are of various kinds, and are fit for almost every
possible use. Excepting in the river Thames, Captain Cook had not
found finer timber in all New Zealand; the most considerable species
of which is the spruce tree; for that name he had given it, from the
similarity of its foliage to the American spruce, though the wood is
more ponderous, and bears a greater resemblance to the pitch pine.
Many of these trees are so large, that they would be able to furnish
mainmasts for fifty-gun ships. Amidst the variety of aromatic trees
and shrubs which this part of New Zealand produced, there was none
which bore fruit fit to be eaten. The country was not found so
destitute of quadrupeds as was formerly imagined.

As Dusky Bay presented many advantages to our navigators, so it was
attended with some disagreeable circumstances. There were great
numbers of small black sandflies, which were troublesome to a degree
that our commander had never experienced before. Another evil arose
from the continual quantity of rain that occurred in the bay. This
might, indeed, in part proceed from the season of the year: but it is
probable that the country must at all times be subject to much wet
weather, in consequence of the vast height and vicinity of the
mountains. It was remarkable that the rain, though our people were
perpetually exposed to it, was not productive of any evil
consequences. On the contrary, such of the men as were sick and
complaining when they entered the bay, recovered daily, and the whole
crew soon became strong and vigorous. So happy a circumstance could
only be attributed to the healthiness of the place, and the fresh
provisions it afforded; among which the beer was a very material
article.

The inhabitants of Dusky Bay are of the same race with the other
natives of New Zealand, speak the same language, and adhere nearly to
the same customs. Their mode of life appears to be a wandering one;
and though they are few in number, no traces were remarked of their
families being connected together In any close bonds of union or
friendship.

While the Resolution lay in the bay, Mr. Wales made a variety of
scientific observations relative to latitude and longitude, the
variation of the compass, and the diversity of the tides.

When Captain Cook left Dusky Bay, he directed his course for Queen
Charlotte's Sound, where he expected to find the Adventure. This was
on the 11th of May, and nothing remarkable occurred till the 17th,
when the wind at once flattened to a calm, the sky became suddenly
obscured by dark dense clouds, and there was every prognostication of
a tempest. Soon after, six waterspouts were seen, four of which rose
and spent themselves between the ship and the land; the fifth was at a
considerable distance, on the other side of the vessel; and the sixth,
the progressive motion of which was not in a straight, but in a
crooked line, passed within fifty yards of the stern of the
Resolution, without producing any evil effect. As the captain had been
informed that the firing of a gun would dissipate waterspouts, he was
sorry that he had not tried the experiment. But, though he was near
enough, and had a gun ready for the purpose, his mind was so deeply
engaged in viewing these extraordinary meteors, that he forgot to give
the necessary directions.

On the next day, the Resolution came within sight of Queen Charlotte's
Sound, where Captain Cook had the satisfaction of discovering the
Adventure; and both ships felt uncommon joy at thus meeting again
after an absence of fourteen weeks. As the events which happened to
Captain Furneaux, during the separation of the two vessels, do not
fall within the immediate design of the present narrative, it may be
sufficient to observe, that he had an opportunity of examining, with
somewhat more accuracy than had hitherto been done, Van Dieman's Land,
and his opinion was, that there are no straits between this land and
New Holland, but a very deep bay. He met, likewise, with farther
proofs, that the natives of New Zealand are eaters of human flesh.

The morning after Captain Cook's arrival in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
he went himself, at daybreak, to look for scurvy-grass, celery, and
other vegetables; and he had the good fortune to return with a
boatload, in a very short space of time. Having found, that a
sufficient quantity of these articles might be obtained for the crews
of both the ships, he gave orders that they should be boiled with
wheat and portable broth, every day for breakfast; and with pease and
broth for dinner. Experience had taught him, that the vegetables now
mentioned, when thus dressed, are extremely beneficial to seamen, in
removing the various scorbutic complaints to which they are subject.

Our commander had entertained a desire of visiting Van Dieman's Land,
in order to inform himself whether it made a part of New Holland. But
as this point had been, in a great measure, cleared up by Captain
Furneaux, he came to a resolution to continue his researches to the
east, between the latitudes of 41 and 46 ; and he directed
accordingly, that the ships should be gotten ready for putting to sea
as soon as possible. On the 20th, he sent on shore the only ewe and
ram that remained of those which, with the intention of leaving them
in this country, he had brought from the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after
he visited several gardens, that by order of captain Furneaux had been
made and planted with various articles; all of which were in such a
flourishing state, that, if duly attended to, they promised to be of
great utility to the natives. The next day, Captain Cook himself set
some men to work to form a garden on Long Island, which he stocked
with different seeds, and particularly with the roots of turnips,
carrots, parsnips, and potatoes. These were the vegetables that would
be of the most real use to the Indians, and of these it was easy to
give them an idea, by comparing them with such roots as they
themselves knew. On the 22nd, Captain Cook received the unpleasant
intelligence, that the ewe and ram, which with so much care and
trouble he had brought to this place, were both of them found dead. It
was supposed that they had eaten some poisonous plant; and by this
accident all the captain's hopes of stocking New Zealand with a breed
of sheep were instantly blasted.

The intercourse which our great navigator had with the inhabitants of
the country, during this his second visit to Queen Charlotte's Sound,
was of a friendly nature. Two or three families took up their abode
near the ships, and employed themselves daily in fishing, and in
supplying the English with the fruits of their labour. No small
advantage hence accrued to our people, who were by no means such
expert fishers as the natives, nor were any of our methods of fishing
equal to theirs. Thus, in almost every state of society, particular
arts of life are carried to perfection; and there is something which
the most polished nations may learn from the most barbarous.

On the 2nd of June, when the Resolution and Adventure were almost
ready to put to sea, Captain Cook sent on shore, on the east side of
the sound, two goats, a male and female; and Captain Furneaux left,
near Cannibal Cove, a boar and two breeding sows. The gentlemen had
little doubt but that the country would, in time, be stocked with
these animals, provided they were not destroyed by the Indians before
they became wild. Afterwards there would be no danger; and as the
natives knew nothing of their being left behind, it was hoped that it
might be some time before they would be discovered.

It is remarkable that, during Captain Cook's second visit to Charlotte
Sound, he was not able to recollect the face of any one person whom he
had seen there three years before. Nor did it once appear, that even a
single Indian had the least knowledge of our commander, or of any of
our people who had been with him in his last voyage. Hence he thought
it highly probable, that the greatest part of the natives who
inhabited this sound to the beginning of the year 1770, had either
since been driven out of it, or had removed, of their own accord, to
some other situation. Not one-third of the inhabitants were there now,
that had been seen at that time. Their strong hold on the point of
Motuara was deserted, and in every part of the sound many forsaken
habitations were discovered. In the captain's opinion, there was not
any reason to believe, that the place had ever been very populous.
From comparing the two voyages together, it may be collected that the
Indians of Eahei-nomauwe are in somewhat of a more improved state of
society than those of Tavai-poenammo.

Part of the 4th of June was employed by Captain Cook in visiting a
chief and a whole tribe of the natives, consisting of between ninety
and a hundred persons, including men, women and children. After the
captain had distributed some presents among these people, and shewn to
the chief the gardens which had been made, he returned on board, and
spent the remainder of the day in the celebration of his royal
master's nativity. Captain Furneaux and all his officers were invited
upon the occasion; and the seamen were enabled, by a double allowance,
to partake of the general joy.

As some might think it an extraordinary step in our commander, to
proceed in discoveries so far south as forty-six degrees of latitude
in the very depth of winter, he has recorded his motives for this part
of his conduct. Winter, he acknowledges, is by no means favourable for
discoveries. Nevertheless, it appeared to him to be necessary that
something should be done in that season, in order to lessen the work
in which he was engaged; and lest he should not be able to finish the
discovery of the southern part of the south Pacific Ocean in the
ensuing summer. Besides, if he should discover any land in his route
to the east, he would be ready to begin to explore it, as soon as ever
the season should be favourable. Independently of all these
considerations, he had little to fear; having two good ships well
provided, and both the crews being healthy. Where then could he better
employ his time? If he did nothing more, he was at least in hopes of
being enabled to point out to posterity, that these seas may be
navigated, and that it is practicable to pursue discoveries even in
the depth of winter. Such was the ardour of our navigator for
prosecuting the ends of his voyage, in circumstances which would have
induced most men to act a more cautious part!

During Captain Cook's stay in the sound, he had observed, that the
second visit to this country had not mended the morals of the natives
of either sex. He had always looked upon the females of New Zealand as
more chaste than the generality of Indian women. Whatever favours a
few of them might have granted to the people in the Endeavour, such
intercourse usually took place in a private manner, and did not appear
to be encouraged by the men. But now the captain was told, that the
male Indians were the chief promoters of this shameful traffic, and
that, for a spikenail, or any other thing they valued, they would
oblige the women to prostitute themselves, whether it were agreeable
or contrary to their inclinations. At the same time no regard was paid
to the privacy which decency required. The account of this fact must
be read with concern by every wellwisher to the good order and
happiness of society, even without adverting to considerations of a
higher nature.

On the 7th of June, Captain Cook put to sea from Queen Charlotte's
Sound, with the Adventure in company. I shall omit the nautical part
of the route from New Zealand to Otaheite, which continued till the
15th of August; and shall only select such circumstances as are more
immediately suitable to the design of the present narrative. It was
found, on the 29th of July, that the crew of the Adventure were in a
sickly state. Her cook was dead, and about twenty of her best men were
rendered incapable of duty by the scurvy and flux. At this time, no
more than three men were on the sick list on board the Resolution; and
only one of these was attacked with the scurvy. Some others, however,
began to discover the symptoms of it; and, accordingly, recourse was
had to wort, marmalade of carrots, and the rob of lemons and oranges,
with the usual success.

Captain Cook could not account for the prevalence of the scurvy being
so much greater in the Adventure than in the Resolution, unless it was
owing to the crew of the former being more scorbutic when they arrived
in New Zealand than the crew of the latter, and to their eating few or
no vegetables while they lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound. This arose
partly from their want of knowing the right sorts, and partly from the
dislike which seamen have to the introduction of a new diet. Their
aversion to any unusual change of food is so great, that it can only
be overcome by the steady and persevering example and authority of a
commander. Many of Captain Cook's people, officers as well as common
sailors, disliked the boiling of celery, scurvy-grass, and other
greens with pease and wheat; and by some the provision, thus prepared,
was refused to be eaten. But, as this had no effect on the captain's
conduct, their prejudice gradually subsided: they began to like their
diet as much as the rest of their companions; and, at length, there
was hardly a man in the ship who did not attribute the freedom of the
crew from the scurvy, to the beer and vegetables which had been made
use of at New Zealand. Henceforward, whenever the seamen came to a
place where vegetables could be obtained, our commander seldom found
it necessary to order them to be gathered; and, if they were scarce,
happy was the person who could lay hold on them first.

On the 1st of August, when the ships were in the latitude of 25 1',
and the longitude of 130 6' west, they were nearly in the same
situation with that which is assigned by Captain Carteret for
Pitcairn's Island, discovered by him in 1767. For this island,
therefore, our voyagers diligently looked; but saw nothing. According
to the longitude in which he had placed it, Captain Cook must have
passed it fifteen leagues to the west. But as this was uncertain, he
did not think it prudent to lose any time in searching for it, as the
sickly state of the Adventure's people required as speedy an arrival
as possible at a place of refreshment. A sight of it, however, would
have been of use in verifying or correcting, not only the longitude of
Pitcairn's Island, but of the others discovered by Captain Carteret in
that neighbourhood. It is a diminution of the value of that
gentleman's voyage, that his longitude was not confirmed by
astronomical observations, and that hence it was liable to errors, the
correction of which was out of his power.

As Captain Cook had now gotten to the northward of Captain Carteret's
tracks, he no longer entertained any hopes of discovering a continent.
Islands were all that he could expect to find, until he returned again
to the south. In this and his former voyage, he had crossed the ocean
in the latitude of 40 and upwards, without meeting any thing which
could, in the least, induce him to believe that he should attain the
great object of his pursuit. Every circumstance concurred to convince
him, that, between the meridian of America and New Zealand, there is
no southern continent; and that there is no continent farther to the
south, unless in a very high latitude. This, however; was a point too
important to be left to opinions and conjectures. It was to be
determined by facts; and the ascertainment of it was appointed, by our
commander, for the employment of the ensuing summer.

It was the 6th of August before the ships had the advantage of the
trade wind. This they got at southeast, being at that time in the
latitude of 19 36' south, and the longitude of 131 32' west. As
Captain Cook had obtained the south east trade wind, he directed his
course to the west-north-west; not only with a view of keeping in with
the strength of the wind, but also to get to the north of the islands
discovered in his former voyage, that he might have a chance of
meeting with any other islands which might lie in the way. It was in
the track which had been pursued by M. de Bougainville that our
commander now proceeded. He was sorry that he could not spare time to
sail to the north of this track; but at present, on account of the
sickly state of the Adventure's crew, the arriving at a place where
refreshments could be procured was an object superior to that of
discovery. To four of the islands which were passed by Captain Cook,
he gave the names of Resolution Island, Doubtful Island, Furneaux
Island, and Adventure Island. They are supposed to be the same that
were seen by M. de Bougainville; and these with several others, which
constitute a cluster of low and half-drowned isles, that gentleman
distinguished by the appellation of the Dangerous Archipelago. The
smoothness of the sea sufficiently convinced our navigators, that they
were surrounded by them, and that it was highly necessary to proceed
with the utmost caution, especially in the night.

Early in the morning, on the 15th of August, the ships came within
sight of Osnaburg Island, or Maitea, which had been discovered by
Captain Wallis. Soon after, Captain Cook acquainted Captain Furneaux,
that it was his intention to put into Oaiti-piha Bay, near the
south-east end of Otaheite, for the purpose of procuring what
refreshments he could from that part of the island, before he went
down to Matavai. At six to the evening the island was seen bearing
west; and our people continued to advance towards it till midnight,
when they brought to, till four o'clock in the morning; after which,
they sailed in for the land with a fine breeze at east. At day-break,
they found themselves within the distance of half a league from the
reef; and, at the same time, the breeze began to fail them, and was at
last succeeded by a calm. It now became necessary for the boats to be
hoisted out, in order to tow off the ships; but all the efforts of our
voyagers, to keep them from being carried near the reef, were
insufficient for the purpose. As the calm continued, the situation of
the vessels became still more dangerous. Captain Cook, however,
entertained hopes of getting round the western point of the reef and
into the bay. But, about two o'clock in the afternoon, when he came
before an opening or break of the reef, through which he had flattered
himself that he might get with the ships, he found, on sending to
examine it, that there was not a sufficient depth of water.
Nevertheless, this opening caused such an indraught of the tide of
flood through it, as was very near proving fatal to the Resolution;
for as soon as the vessels got into the stream, they were carried
towards the reef with great impetuosity. The moment the captain
perceived this, he ordered one of the warping machines, which was held
in readiness, to be carried out with about four hundred fathoms of
rope; but it did not produce the least effect: and our navigators had
now in prospect the horrors of shipwreck. They were not more than two
cables' length from the breakers; and, though it was the only probable
method which was left of saving the ships, they could find no bottom
to anchor. An anchor, however, they did drop; but before it took hold,
and brought them up, the Resolution was in less than three fathom
water and struck at every fall of the sea, which broke close under her
stern in a dreadful surf, and threatened her crew every moment with
destruction. Happily the Adventure brought up without striking.
Presently, the Resolution's people carried out two kedge-anchors, with
hawsers to each; and these found ground a little without the bower. By
heaving upon them, and cutting away the bower anchor, the ship was
gotten afloat, where Captain Cook and his men lay for some time in the
greatest anxiety, expecting every minute that either the kedges would
come home, or the hawsers be cut in two by the rocks. At length, the
tide ceased to act in the same direction: upon which the captain
ordered all the boats to try to tow off the vessel. Having found this
to be practicable, the two kedges were hove up; and at that moment a
light air came off from the land, by which the boats were so much
assisted, that the Resolution soon got clear of all danger. Our
commander then ordered all the boats to assist the Adventure; but
before they reached her, she was under sail with the land breeze, and
in a little time joined her companion, leaving behind her three
anchors, her coasting cable, and two hawsers, which were never
recovered. Thus were our voyagers once more safe at sea, after
narrowly escaping being wrecked on the very island, at which, but a
few days before, they had most ardently wished to arrive. It was a
peculiarly happy circumstance, that the calm continued, after bringing
the ships into so dangerous a state; for if the sea breeze, as is
usually the ease, had set, in, the Resolution must inevitably have
been lost, and probably the Adventure likewise. During the time in
which the English were in this critical situation, a number of the
natives were either on board or near the vessel in their canoes.
Nevertheless, they seemed to be insensible of our people's danger,
shewing not the least surprise, joy, or fear, when the ships were
striking; and they went away a little before sunset, quite
unconcerned. Though most of them knew Captain Cook again, and many
inquired for Mr. Banks and others who had been with the captain
before, it was remarkable that not one of them asked for Tupia.

On the 17th the Resolution and Adventure anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay,
immediately upon which they were crowded with the inhabitants of the
country, who brought with them cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananas, apples,
yams, and other roots, which were exchanged for nails and beads. To
some, who called themselves chiefs, our commander made presents of
shirts, axes, and several articles besides, in return for which they
promised to bring him hogs and fowls; a promise which they did not
perform, and which, as might be judged from their conduct, they had
never had the least intention of performing. In the afternoon of the
same day, Captain Cook landed in company with Captain Furneaux, for
the purpose of viewing the watering-place, and of sounding the
disposition of the natives. The article of water, which was now much
wanted on board, he found might conveniently he obtained, and the
inhabitants behaved with great civility. Notwithstanding this
civility, nothing was brought to market, the next day, but fruit and
roots, though it was said that many hogs were seen about the houses in
the neighbourhood. The cry was, that they belonged to Waheatoua, the
earee de hi, or king; who had not yet appeared, nor indeed, any other
chief of note. Among the Indians that came on board the Resolution,
and no small number of whom did not scruple to call themselves earees,
there was one of this sort, who had been entertained in the cabin most
of the day, and to all of whose friends Captain Cook had made
presents, as well as liberally to himself. At length, however, he was
caught taking things which did not belong to him, and handing them out
of the quarter gallery. Various complaints of the like nature being,
at the same time, made against the natives who were on deck, our
commander turned them all out of the ship. His cabin guest was very
rapid in his retreat; and the captain was so exasperated at his
behaviour, that after the earee had gotten to some distance from the
Resolution, he fired two muskets over his head, by which he was so
terrified that he quitted his canoe and took to the water. Captain
Cook then sent a boat to take the canoe; but when the boat approached
the shore, the people on land began to pelt her with stones. The
captain, therefore, being in some pain for her safety, as she was
unarmed, went himself in another boat to protect her, and ordered a
great gun, loaded with ball, to be fired along the coast, which made
all the Indians retire from the shore, and he was suffered to bring
away two canoes without the least show of opposition. In a few hours
peace was restored, and the canoes were returned to the first person
who came for them.

It was not till the evening of this day, that any one inquired after
Tupia, and then the inquiry was made by only two or three of the
natives. When they learned the cause of his death, they were perfectly
satisfied; nor did it appear to our commander that they would have
felt a moment's uneasiness, if Tupia's decease had proceeded from any
other cause than sickness. They were as little concerned about
Aotourou, the man who had gone away with M. de Bougainville. But they
were continually asking for Mr. Banks, and for several others who had
accompanied Captain Cook in his former voyage.

Since that voyage, very considerable changes had happened in the
country. Toutaha, the regent of the great peninsula of Otaheite, had
been killed, in a battle which was fought between the two kingdoms
about five months before the Resolution's arrival; and Otto was now
the reigning prince. Tubourai Tamaide, and several more of the
principal friends to the English, had fallen in this battle, together
with a large number of the common people. A peace subsisted, at
present, between the two grand divisions of the island.

On the 20th, one of the natives carried off a musket belonging to the
guard onshore. Captain Cook, who was himself a witness of the
transaction, sent out some of his people after him; but this would
have been to very little purpose, if the thief had not been
intercepted by several of his own countrymen, who pursued him
voluntarily, knocked him down, and returned the musket to the English.
This act of justice prevented our commander from being placed in a
disagreeable situation. If the natives had not given their immediate
assistance, it would scarcely have been in his power to have recovered
the musket, by any gentle means whatever; and if he had been obliged
to have recourse to other methods, he was sure of loosing more than
ten times its value.

The fraud of one, who appeared as a chief, is, perhaps, not unworthy
of notice. This man, in a visit to Captain Cook, presented him with a
quantity of fruit; among which were a number of cocoa-nuts, that had
already been exhausted of their liquor by our people, and afterwards
thrown overboard. These the chief had picked up, and tied so artfully
in bundles, that at first the deception was not perceived. When he was
informed of it, without betraying the least emotion, and affecting a
total ignorance of the matter, he opened two or three of the nuts
himself, signified that he was satisfied of the fact, and then went on
shore and sent off a quantity of plantains and bananas. The ingenuity
and the impudence of fraud are not solely the production of polished
society.

Captain Cook, on the 23rd, had an interview with Waheatoua, the result
of which was that our navigators obtained this day as much pork as
furnished a meal to the crews of both the vessels. In the captain's
last voyage, Waheatoua, who was then little more than a boy, was
called Tearee; but having succeeded to his father's authority, he had
assumed his father's name.

The fruits that were procured at Oaiti-piha Bay contributed greatly to
the recovery of the sick people belonging to the Adventure. Many of
them, who had been so ill as to be incapable of moving without
assistance, were, in the compass of a few days, so far recovered that
they were able to walk about of themselves. When the Resolution
entered the bay, she had but one scorbutic man on board. A marine, who
had long been sick; and who died the second day after her arrival, of
a complication of disorders, had not the least mixture of the scurvy.

On the 24th, the ships put to sea, and arrived the next evening in
Matavia Bay. Before they could come to an anchor, the decks were
crowded with the natives, many of whom Captain Cook knew, and by most
of whom he was well remembered. Among a large multitude of people, who
were collected together upon the shore, was Otoo, the king of the
island. Our commander paid him a visit on the following day, at
Oparree, the place of his residence; and found him to be a fine,
personable, well-made man, six feet high, and about thirty years of
age. The qualities of his mind were not correspondent to his external
appearance: for when Captain Cook endeavoured to obtain from him the
promise of a visit on board, he acknowledged that he was afraid of the
guns, and, indeed, manifested in all his actions that he was a prince
of a timorous disposition.

Upon the captain's return from Oparree, he found the tents, and the
astronomer's observatories, set up, on the same spot from which the
transit of Venus had been observed in 1769. The sick, being twenty in
number from the Adventure, and one from the Resolution, all of whom
were ill of the scurvy, he ordered to be landed; and he appointed a
guard of marines on shore, under the command of Lieutenant Edgcumbe.

On the 27th, Otoo was prevailed upon, with some degree of reluctance,
to pay our commander a visit. He came attended with a numerous train,
and brought with him fruits, a hog, two large fish, and a quantity of
cloth: for which he and all his retinue were gratified with suitable
presents. When Captain Cook conveyed his guests to land, he was met by
a venerable lady, the mother of the late Toutaha, who seized him by
both hands, and burst into a flood of tears, saying, _Toutaha tiyo
no toutee matty Toutaha_; that is, 'Toutaha, your friend, or the
friend of Cook, is dead.' He was so much affected with her behaviour,
that it would have been impossible for him to have refrained from
mingling his tears with hers, had not Otoo, who was displeased with
the interview, taken him from her. It was with difficulty that the
captain could obtain permission to see her again, when he gave her an
axe and some other articles. Captain Furneaux, at this time presented
the king with two fine goats, which, if no accident befell them, might
be expected to multiply.

Several days had passed in a friendly intercourse with the natives,
and in the procuring provisions, when, in the evening of the 30th, the
gentlemen on board the Resolution were alarmed with the cry of murder,
and with a great noise on shore, near the bottom of the bay, and at a
distance from the English encampment. Upon this, Captain Cook, who
suspected that some of his own men were concerned in the affair,
immediately dispatched an armed boat, to know the cause of the
disturbance, and to bring off such of his people as should be found in
the place. He sent also, to the Adventure, and to the post on shore,
to learn who were missing: for none but those who were upon duty were
absent from the Resolution. The boats speedily returned with three
marines and a seaman. Some others, likewise, were taken, belonging to
the Adventure; and all of them being put under confinement, our
commander, the next morning, ordered them to be punished according to
their deserts. He did not find that any mischief had been done, and
the men would confess nothing. Some liberties which they had taken
with the women had probably given occasion to the disturbance. To
whatever cause it was owing, the natives were so much alarmed, that
they fled from their habitations in the dead of night, and the alarm
was spread many miles along the coast. In the morning, when Captain
Cook went to visit Otoo, by appointment, he found he had removed, or
rather fled, to a great distance from the usual place of his abode.
After arriving where he was, it was some hours before the captain
could be admitted to the sight of him; and then he complained of the
riot of the preceding evening.

The sick being nearly recovered, the water completed, and the
necessary repairs of the ships finished, Captain Cook determined to
put to sea without delay. Accordingly, on the 1st of September, he
ordered every thing to be removed from the shore, and the vessels to
be unmoored, in which employment his people were engaged the greater
part of the day. In the afternoon of the same day, Lieutenant
Pickersgill returned from Attahourou, to which place he had been sent
by the captain, for the purpose of procuring some hogs that had been
promised. In this expedition, the lieutenant had seen the celebrated
Oberea, who has been so much the object of poetical fancy. Her
situation was very humble compared with what it had formerly been. She
was not only altered much for the worse in her person, but appeared to
be poor, and of little or no consequence or authority in the island.
In the evening, a favourable wind having sprung up, our commander put
to sea; on which occasion he was obliged to dismiss his Otaheite
friends sooner than they wished to depart; but well satisfied with his
kind and liberal treatment.

From Matavai Bay, Captain Cook directed his course for the island of
Huaheine, where he intended to touch. This island he reached the next
day, and, early in the morning of the 3rd of September, made sail for
the harbour of Owharre, in which he soon came to an anchor. The
Adventure, not happening to turn into the harbour with equal facility,
got ashore on the north side of the channel; but, by the timely
assistance which Captain Cook had previously provided, in case such an
accident should occur, she was gotten off again, without receiving any
damage. As soon as both the ships were in safety, our commander;
together with Captain Furneaux, landed upon the island, and was
received by the natives with the utmost cordiality. A trade
immediately commenced; so that our navigators had a fair prospect of
being plentifully supplied with fresh pork and fowls, which, to people
in their situation, was a very desirable circumstance. On, the 4th,
Lieutenant Pickersgill sailed with the cutter, on a trading party,
toward the south end of the isle. Another trading party was also sent
on shore near the ships, which party Captain Cook attended himself, to
see that the business was properly conducted at the first setting out,
this being a point of no small importance. Every thing being settled
to his mind, he went, accompanied by Captain Furneaux, and Mr.
Forster, to pay a visit to his old friend Oree, the chief of the
island. This visit was preceded by many preparatory ceremonies. Among
other things the chief sent to our commander the inscription engraved
on a small piece of pewter, which he had left with him in July, 1761.
It was in the bag that Captain Cook had made for it, together with a
piece of counterfeit English coin, and a few beads, which had been put
in at the same time; whence it was evident what particular care had
been taken of the whole. After the previous ceremonies had been
discharged, the captain wanted to go to the king, but he was informed
that the king would come to him. Accordingly, Oree went up to our
commander, and fell on his neck, and embraced him; nor was it a
ceremonious embrace, for the tears which trickled down the venerable
old man's cheeks sufficiently bespoke the language of his heart. The
presents, which Captain Cook made to the chief on this occasion,
consisted of the most valuable articles he had; for he regarded him as
a father. Oree, in return, gave the captain a hog, and a quantity of
cloth, promising that all the wants of the English should be supplied;
and it was a promise to which he faithfully adhered. Indeed, he
carried his kindness to Captain Cook so far, as not to fail sending
him every day, for his table, a plentiful supply of the very best of
ready-dressed fruits and roots.

Hitherto, all things had gone on in the most agreeable manner; but on
Monday, the 6th, several circumstances occurred, which rendered it an
unpleasant and troublesome day. When our commander went to the
trading-place, he was informed that one of the inhabitants had behaved
with remarkable insolence. The man was completely equipped in the war
habit, had a club in each hand, and seemed bent upon mischief. Captain
Cook took, therefore, the clubs from him, broke them before his eyes,
and with some difficulty compelled him to retire. About the same time,
Mr. Sparrman, who had imprudently gone out alone to botanize, was
assaulted by two men, who stripped him of every thing which he had
about him, excepting his trowsers, and struck him again and again with
his own hanger, though happily without doing him any harm. When they
had accomplished their purpose, they made off; after which another of
the natives brought a piece of cloth to cover him, and conducted him
to the trading place, where the inhabitants, in a large number, were
assembled. The instant that Mr. Sparrman appeared in the condition now
described, they all fled with the utmost precipitation. Captain Cook,
having recalled a few of the Indians, and convinced them that he
should take no step to injure those who were innocent, went to Oree to
complain of the outrage. When the chief had heard the whole affair
related, he wept aloud, and many other of the inhabitants did the
same. After the first transports of his grief had subsided, he began
to expostulate with his people, telling them (for so his language was
understood by the English) how well Captain Cook had treated them both
in this and his former voyage, and how base it was in them to commit
such actions. He then took a minute account of the things of which Mr.
Sparrman had been robbed, and, after having promised to use his utmost
endeavours for the recovery of them, desired to go into the captain's
boat. At this, the natives, apprehensive doubtless for the safety of
their prince, expressed the utmost alarm, and used every argument to
dissuade him from so rash a measure. All their remonstrances, however,
were in vain. He hastened into the boat; and as soon as they saw that
their beloved chief was wholly in our commander's power, they set up a
great outcry. Indeed, their grief was inexpressible; they prayed,
entreated nay, attempted to pull him out of the boat; and every face
was bedewed with tears. Even Captain Cook himself was so moved by
their distress, that he united his entreaties with theirs, but all to
no purpose. Oree insisted upon the captain's coming into the boat,
which was no sooner done, than he ordered it to be put off. His sister
was the only person among the Indians who behaved with a becoming
magnanimity on this occasion; for, with a spirit equal to that of her
royal brother, she alone did not oppose his going. It was his design,
in coming into the boat of the English, to proceed with them in search
of the robbers. Accordingly, he went with Captain Cook, as far as it
was convenient, by water, when they landed, entered the country, and
travelled same miles inland; in doing which the chief led the way, and
inquired after the criminals of every person whom he saw. In this
search he would have gone to the very extremity of the island, if our
commander, who did not think the object worthy of so laborious a
pursuit, had not refused to proceed any farther. Besides, as he
intended to sail the next morning, and all manner of trade was stopped
in consequence of the alarm of the natives, it became the more
necessary for him to return, that he might restore things to their
former state. It was with great reluctance that Ores was prevailed
upon to discontinue the search, and to content himself with sending,
at Captain Cook's request, some of his people for the things which had
been carried off. When he and the captain had gotten back to the boat,
they found there the chief's sister, and several other persons, who
had travelled by land to the place. The English gentlemen immediately
stepped into their boat, in order to return on board, without so much
as asking Oree to accompany them; notwithstanding which, he insisted
upon doing it; nor could the opposition and entreaties of those who
were about him induce him to desist from his purpose. His sister
followed his example, uninfluenced, on this occasion, by the
supplications and tears of her daughter. Captain Cook amply rewarded
the chief and his sister for the confidence they had placed in him;
and, after dinner, conveyed them both on shore, where some hundreds of
people waited to receive them, many of whom embraced Oree with tears
of joy. All was now peace and gladness: the inhabitants crowded in
from every part, with such a plentiful supply of hogs, fowls, and
vegetable productions, that the English presently filled two boats;
and the chief himself presented the captain with a large hog, and a
quantity of fruit. Mr. Sparrman's hanger the only thing of value which
he had lost, was brought back, together with part of his coat; and our
navigators were told, that the remaining articles should be restored
the next day. Some things which had been stolen from a party of
officers, who had gone out a shooting, were returned in like manner.

The transactions of this day have been the more particularly related,
as they shew the high opinion which the chief had formed of our
commander, and the unreserved confidence that he placed in his
integrity and honour. Oree had entered into a solemn friendship with
Captain Cook, according to all the forms which were customary in the
country; and he seemed to think, that this friendship could not be
broken by the act of any other persons. It is justly observed by the
captain, that another chief may never be found, who, under similar
circumstances, will act in the same manner. Oree, indeed, had nothing
to fear: for it was not our commander's intention to hurt a hair of
his head, or to detain him a moment longer than was agreeable to his
own desire. But of this how could he and his people be assured? They
were not ignorant, that when he was once in Captain Cook's power, the
whole force of the island would not be sufficient to recover him, and
that they must have complied with any demands, however great, for his
ransom. The apprehensions, therefore, of the inhabitants, for their
chief's and their own safety, had a reasonable foundation.

Early on the 7th, while the ships were unmooring, the captain went to
pay his farewell visit to Oree, and took with him such presents as had
not only a fancied value, but a real utility. He left, also, with the
chief the inscription plate, that had been before in his possession,
and another small copper-plate, on which were engraved these words:
'Anchored here, his Britannic Majesty's ships, Resolution and
Adventure, September, 1773.' These plates, together with some medals,
were put up in a bag; of which Oree promised to take care, and to
produce them to the first ship or ships that should arrive at the
island. Having, in return, given a hog to Captain Cook, and loaded his
boat with fruit, they took leave of each other, when the good old
chief embraced our commander with tears in his eyes. Nothing was
mentioned, at this interview, concerning the remainder of Mr.
Sparrman's property. As it was early in the morning, the captain
judged that it had not been brought in, and he was not willing to
speak of it to Oree, lest he should give him pain about things which
there had not been time to recover. The robbers having soon afterward
been taken, Oree came on board again, to request that our commander
would go on shore, either to punish them, or to be present at their
punishment; but this not being convenient to him, he left them to the
correction of their own chief. It was from the island of Huaheine that
Captain Furneaux received into his ship a young man named Omai, a
native of Ulietea, of whom so much hath since been known and written.
This choice Captain Cook at first disapproved; as thinking that the
youth was not a proper sample of the inhabitants of the Society
Islands; being inferior to many of them in birth and acquired rank,
and not having any peculiar advantage in point of shape, figure, or
complexion. The captain afterward found reason to be better satisfied
with Omai's having accompanied our navigators, to England.

During the short stay of the vessels at Huaheine, our people were very
successful in obtaining supplies of provisions. No less than three
hundred hogs, besides fowls and fruit, were procured; and had the
ships continued longer at the place, the quantity might have been
greatly increased. Such was the fertility of this small island, that
none of these articles of refreshment were seemingly diminished, but
appeared to be as plentiful as ever.

From Huaheine our navigators sailed for Ulietea; where, trade was
carried on in the usual manner, and a most friendly intercourse
renewed between Captain Cook and Oree, the chief of the island. Here
Tupia was inquired after with particular eagerness, and the inquirers
were perfectly satisfied with the account which was given of the
occasion of that Indian's decease.

On the morning of the 15th, the English were surprised at finding that
none of the inhabitants of Ulietea came off to the ships, as had
hitherto been customary. As two men belonging to the Adventure had
stayed on shore all night, contrary to orders, Captain Cook's first
conjectures were, that the natives had stripped them, and were afraid
of the revenge which would be taken of the insult. This, however, was
not the case. The men had been treated with great civility, and could
assign no cause for the precipitate flight of the Indians. All that
the captain could learn was, that several were killed and others
wounded, by the guns of the English This information alarmed him for
the safety of some of our people, who had been sent out in two boats
to the island of Otaha. He determined, therefore, it possible, to see
the chief himself. When he came up to him, Oree threw his arms around
our commander's neck, and burst into tears; in which he was
accompanied by all the women, and some of the men; so that the
lamentations became general. Astonishment alone kept Captain Cook from
joining in their grief. At last, the whole which he could collect from
his inquiries was, that the natives had been alarmed on account of the
absence of the English boats, and imagined that the captain, upon the
supposition of the desertion of his men, would use violent means for
the recovery of his loss. When the matter was explained, it was
acknowledged that not a single inhabitant, or a single Englishman, had
been hurt. This groundless consternation displayed in a strong light
the timorous disposition of the people of the Society islands.

Our navigators were as successful in procuring provisions at Ulietea
as they had been at Huaheine. Captain Cook judged that the number of
hogs obtained amounted to four hundred or upwards: many of them,
indeed, were only roasters, while others exceeded a hundred pounds in
weight; but the general run was from forty to sixty. A larger quantity
was offered than the ships could contain; so that our countrymen were
enabled to proceed on their voyage with no small degree of comfort and
advantage.

Our commander, by his second visit to the Society islands, gained a
farther knowledge of their general state, and of the customs of the
inhabitants. It appeared, that a Spanish ship had been lately at
Otaheite, and the natives complained, that a disease had been
communicated to them by the people of this vessel which according to
their account affected the head, the throat, and the stomach, and at
length ended in death. With regard to a certain disorder, the effects
of which have so fatally been felt in the latter ages of the world,
Captain Cook's inquiries could not absolutely determine whether it was
known to the islanders before they were visited by the Europeans. If
it was of recent origin, the introduction of it was, without a
dissentient voice, ascribed to the voyage of M. de Bougainville.

One thing which our commander was solicitous to ascertain, was,
whether human sacrifices constituted a part of the religious customs
of these people, The man of whom he had made his inquiries, and
several other natives took some pains to explain the matter; but, from
our people's ignorance of the language of the country, their
explication could not be understood. Captain Cook afterwards learned
from Omai that the inhabitants of the Society islands offer human
sacrifices to the Supreme Being. What relates to funeral ceremonies
excepted, all the knowledge he could obtain concerning their religion
was very imperfect and defective.

The captain had an opportunity, in this voyage of rectifying the great
injustice which had been done to the women of Otaheite and the
neighbouring isles. They had been represented as ready, without
exception to grant the last favour to any man who would come up to
their price: but our commander found that this was by no means the
case. The favours both of the married women and of the unmarried, of
the better sort, were as difficult to be obtained in the Society
islands as in any other country whatever. Even with respect to the
unmarried females of the lower class, the charge was not
indiscriminately true. There were many of these who would not admit of
indecent familiarities. The setting this subject in a proper light
must be considered as one of the agreeable effects of Captain Cook's
second voyage. Every enlightened mind will rejoice at what conduces to
the honour of human nature in general, and of the female sex in
particular. Chastity is so eminently the glory of that sex, and,
indeed, is so essentially connected with the good order of society,
that it must be a satisfaction to reflect, that there is no country,
however ignorant or barbarous, in which this virtue is not regarded as
an object of moral obligation.

This voyage enabled our commander to gain some farther knowledge
concerning the geography of the Society isles; and he found it highly
probable, that Otaheite is of greater extent than he had computed it
in his former estimation. The astronomers did not neglect to set up
their observatories, and to make observations suited to their purpose.

On the 17th of September, Captain Cook sailed from Ulietea, directing
his course to the west, with an inclination to the south. Land was
discovered on the 23rd of the month, to which he gave the name of
Harvey's Island. On the 1st of October, he reached the island of
Middleburg. While he was looking about for a landing place, two
canoes, each of them conducted by two or three men, came boldly
alongside the ship, and some of the people entered it without
hesitation. This mark of confidence inspired our commander with so
good an opinion of the inhabitants, that he determined, if possible,
to pay them a visit, which he did the next day. Scarcely had the
vessels gotten to an anchor, before they were surrounded by a great
number of canoes, full of the natives, who brought with them cloth,
and various curiosities, which they exchanged for nails, and such
other articles as were adapted to their fancy. Among those who came on
board, was a chief, named Tioony, whose friendship Captain Cook
immediately gained by proper presents, consisting principally of a
hatchet and some spike-nails. A party of our navigators, with the
captain at the head of them having embarked in two boats, proceeded to
the shore, where they found an immense crowd of people, who welcomed
them to the island with loud acclamations. There was not so much as a
stick, or any other weapon, in the hands of a single native, so
pacific were their dispositions and intentions. They seemed to be more
desirous of giving than receiving; and many of them, who could not
approach near to the boats, threw into them, over the heads of others,
whole bales of cloth, and then retired, without either asking or
waiting for anything in return. The whole day was spent by our
navigators in the most agreeable manner. When they returned on board
in the evening, every one expressed how much he was delighted with the
country, and the very obliging behaviour of the inhabitants, who
seemed to vie with each other in their endeavours to give pleasure to
our people. All this conduct appeared to be the result of the most
pure good nature, perhaps without being accompanied with much
sentiment or feeling; for when Captain Cook signified to the chief his
intention of quitting the island, he did not seem to be in the least
moved. Among other articles presented by the captain to Tioony, he
left him an assortment of garden seeds, which, if properly used, might
be of great future benefit to the country.

From Middleburg, the ships sailed down to Amsterdam, the natives of
which island were equally ready with those of the former place to
maintain a friendly intercourse with the English. Like the people of
Middleburg, they brought nothing with them but cloth, matting, and
such other articles as could be of little service; and for these our
seamen were so simple as to barter away their clothes. To put a stop,
therefore to so injurious a traffic, and to obtain the necessary
refreshments, the captain gave orders, that no sort of curiosities
should be purchased by any person whatever. This injunction produced
the desired effect. When the inhabitants saw that the English would
deal with them for nothing but eatables, they brought off bananas and
cocoa-nuts in abundance, together with some fowls and pigs; all of
which they exchanged for small nails and pieces of cloth. Even a few
old rags were sufficient for the purchase of a pig or a fowl.

The method of carrying on trade being settled, and proper officers
having been appointed to prevent disputes, our commander's next object
was to obtain as complete a knowledge as possible of the island of
Amsterdam. In this he was much facilitated by a friendship which he
had formed with Attago, one of the chiefs of the country. Captain Cook
was struck with admiration, when he surveyed the beauty and
cultivation of the island. He thought himself transported into the
most fertile plains of Europe. There was not an inch of waste ground.
The roads occupied no larger a space than was absolutely necessary,
and the fences did not take up above four inches each. Even such a
small portion of ground was not wholly lost; for many of the fences
themselves contained useful trees or plants. The scene was every where
the same; and nature, assisted by a little art, no where assumes a
more splendid appearance than in this island.

Friendly as were the natives of Amsterdam, they were not entirely free
from the thievish disposition which had so often been remarked in the
islanders of the Southern Ocean. The instances, however, of this kind,
which occurred, were not of such a nature as to produce any
extraordinary degree of trouble, or to involve our people in a quarrel
with the inhabitants.

Captain Cook's introduction to the king of the island afforded a scene
somewhat remarkable. His majesty was seated with so much sullen and
stupid gravity, that the captain took him for an idiot, whom the
Indians, from some superstitious reasons, were ready to worship. When
our commander saluted and spoke to him, he neither answered, nor took
the least notice of him; nor did he alter a single feature of his
countenance. Even the presents which were made to him could not induce
him to resign a bit of his gravity, or to speak one word, or to turn
his head either to the right hand or to the left. As he was in the
prime of life, it was possible that a false sense of dignity might
engage him to assume so solemn a stupidity of appearance. In the
history of mankind, instances might probably be found which would
confirm this supposition.

It is observable, that the two islands of Middleburg and Amsterdam are
guarded from the sea by a reef of coral rocks, which extend out from
the shore about one hundred fathoms. On this reef the force of the sea
is spent before it reaches the land. The same, indeed, is, to a great
measure, the situation of all the tropical isles which our commander
had seen in that part of the globe; and hence arises an evidence of
the wisdom and goodness of Providence; as by such a provision, nature
has effectually secured them from the encroachments of the sea, though
many of them are mere points, when compared with the vast ocean by
which they are surrounded.

In Amsterdam, Mr. Forster not only found the same plants that are at
Otaheite and the neighbouring islands, but several others, which are
not to be met with in those places. Captain Cook took care, by a
proper assortment of garden-seeds and pulse, to increase the vegetable
stock of the inhabitants.

Hogs and fowls were the only domestic animals that were seen in these
islands. The former are of the same sort with those which have been
met with in other parts of the Southern Ocean; but the latter are far
superior, being as large as any in Europe, and equal, if not
preferable, with respect to the goodness of their flesh.

Both men and women are of a common size with Europeans. Their colour
is that of a lightish copper, and with a greater uniformity than
occurs among the natives of Otaheite and the Society Isles. Some of
the English gentlemen were of opinion, that the inhabitants of
Middleburg and Amsterdam were a much handsomer race; while others with
whom Captain Cook concurred, maintained a contrary sentiment. However
this may be, their shape is good, their features regular, and they are
active, brisk, and lively. The women, in particular, are the merriest
creatures our commander had ever met with: and, provided any person
seemed pleased with them, they would keep chattering by his side
without the least invitation, or considering whether they were
understood. They appeared in general to be modest, though there were
several amongst them of a different character. As there were yet on
board some complaints of a certain disorder, the captain took all
possible care to prevent its communication. Our navigators were
frequently entertained by the women with songs, and this in a manner
which was by no means disagreeable. They had a method of keeping time
by snapping their fingers. Their music was harmonious as well as their
voices, and there was a considerable degree of compass in their notes.

A singular custom was found to prevail in these islands. The greater
part of the people were observed to have lost one or both of their
little fingers; and this was not peculiar to rank, age, or sex; nor
was the amputation restricted to any specific period of life. Our
navigators endeavoured in vain to discover the reason of so
extraordinary a practice.

A very extensive knowledge of the language of Middleburg and Amsterdam
could not be obtained during the short stay which was made there by
the English. However, the more they inquired into it, the more they
found that it was, in general, the same with that which is spoken at
Otaheite and the Society isles. The difference is not greater than
what frequently occurs betwixt the most northern and western parts of
England.

On the 7th of October, Captain Cook proceeded on his voyage. His
intention was to sail directly to Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New
Zealand, for the purpose of taking in wood and water, after which he
was to pursue his discoveries to the south and the east. The day after
he quitted Amsterdam, he passed the island of Pilstart; an island
which had been discovered by Tasman.

On the 21st, he made the land of New Zealand, at the distance of eight
or ten leagues from Table Cape. As our commander was very desirous of
leaving in the country such an assortment of animals and vegetables as
might greatly contribute to the future benefit of the inhabitants, one
of the first things which he did was to give to a chief, who had come
off in a canoe, two boars, two sows, four hens, and two cocks,
together with a quantity of seeds, The seeds were of the most useful
kind; such as wheat, french and kidney beans, pease, cabbage, turnips,
onions, carrots, parsnips, and yams. The man to whom these several
articles were presented, though he was much more enraptured with a
spike-nail half the length of his arm, promised, however, to take care
of them, and in particular, not to kill any of the animals. If he
adhered to his promise, they would be sufficient, in a due course of
time, to stock the whole island.

It was the 3rd of November before Captain Cook brought the Resolution
into Ship Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. He had been beating about
the island from the 21st of October, during which time his vessel was
exposed to a variety of tempestuous weather. In one instance he had
been driven off the land by a furious storm, which lasted two days,
and which would have been dangerous in the highest degree, had it not
fortunately happened that it was fair overhead, and that there was no
reason to be apprehensive of a lee-shore. In the course of the bad
weather which succeeded this storm, the Adventure was separated from
the Resolution, and was never seen or heard of through the whole
remainder of the voyage.

The first object of our commander's attention, after his arrival in
Queen Charlotte's Sound, was to provide for the repair of his ship,
which had suffered in various respects, and especially in her sails
and rigging. Another matter which called for his notice was the state
of the bread belonging to the vessel, and he had the mortification of
finding, that a large quantity of it was damaged. To repair this loss
in the best manner he was able, he ordered all the casks to be opened,
the bread to be picked, and such parcels of it to be baked, in the
copper oven, as could by that means be recovered. Notwithstanding this
care, four thousand two hundred and ninety-two pounds were found
totally unfit for use; and about three thousand pounds more could only
be eaten by people in the situation of our navigators.

Captain Cook was early in his inquiries concerning the animals which
had been left at New Zealand, in the former part of his voyage. He saw
the youngest of the two sows that Captain Furneaux had put on shore in
Cannibal Cove. She was in good condition, and very tame. The boar and
other sow, if our commander was rightly informed, were taken away and
separated, but not killed. He was told that the two goats, which he
had landed up the Sound, had been destroyed by a rascally native of
the name of Goubiah; so that the captain had the grief of discovering
that all his benevolent endeavours to stock the country with useful
animals were likely to be frustrated by the very people whom he was
anxious to serve. The gardens had met with a better fate. Every thing
in them, excepting potatoes, the inhabitants had left entirely to
nature, who had so well performed her part, that most of the articles
were in a flourishing condition.

Notwithstanding the inattention and folly of the New Zealanders,
Captain Cook still continued his zeal for their benefit. To the
inhabitants who resided at the Cove, he gave a boar, a young sow, two
cocks, and two hens, which had been brought from the Society islands.
At the bottom of the West Bay, he ordered to be landed without the
knowledge of the Indians, four hogs, being three sows and one boar,
together with cocks and two hens. They were carried a little way into
the woods, and as much food was left them as would serve them for ten
or twelve days; which was done to prevent their coming down to the
shore in search of sustenance, and by that means being discovered by
the natives. The captain was desirous of replacing the two goats which
Goubiah was understood to have killed, by leaving behind him the only
two that yet remained in his possession. But he had the misfortune,
soon after his arrival at Queen Charlotte's Sound to lose the ram; and
this in a manner for which it was not easy to assign the cause.
Whether it was owing to any thing he had eaten, or to his being stung
with nettles, which were very plentiful in the place, he was seized
with fits that bordered upon madness. In one of these fits, he was
supposed to have run into the sea, and to have been drowned: and thus
every method, which our commander had taken to stock the country with
sheep and goats, proved ineffectual. He hoped to be more successful
with respect to the boars and sows and the cocks and hens, which he
left in the island.

While the boatswain, one day, and a party of men, were employed in
cutting broom, some of them stole several things from a private hut of
the natives, in which was deposited most of the treasures they had
received from the English as well as property of their own. Complaint
being made by the Indians to Captain Cook, and a particular man of the
boatswain's party having been pointed out to the captain, as the
person who had committed the theft, he ordered him to be punished in
their presence. With this they went away seemingly satisfied, although
they did not recover any of the articles which they had lost. It was
always a maxim with our commander, to punish the least crimes which
any of his people were guilty of with regard to uncivilized nations.
Their robbing us with impunity he by no means considered as a reason
for our treating them in the same manner. Addicted as the New
Zealanders were, in a certain degree, to stealing, a disposition which
must have been very much increased by the novelty and allurement of
the objects presented to their view; they had, nevertheless, when
injured themselves, such a sense of justice as to apply to Captain
Cook for redress. The best method, in his opinion, of preserving a
good understanding with the inhabitants of countries in this state of
society, is, first, to convince them of the superiority we have over
them in consequence of our fire arms, and then to be always upon our
guard. Such a conduct, united with strict honesty and gentle
treatment, will convince them, that it is their interest not to
disturb us, and prevent them from forming any general plan of attack.

In this second visit of our navigators to New Zealand, they met with
indubitable evidence that the natives were eaters of human flesh. The
proofs of this fact had a most powerful influence on the mind of
Oedidee, a youth of Bolabola, whom Captain Cook had brought in the
Resolution from Ulietea. He was so affected, that he became perfectly
motionless, and exhibited such a picture of horror, that it would have
been impossible for art to describe that passion with half the force
with which it appeared in his countenance. When he was roused from
this state by some of the English, he burst into tears; continued to
weep and scold by turns; told the New Zealanders that they were vile
men; and assured them, that he would not be any longer their friend.
He would not so much as permit them to come near him; and he refused
to accept or even to touch, the knife by which some human flesh had
been cut off. Such was Oedidee's indignation against the abominable
custom; and our commander has justly remarked, that it was an
indignation worthy to be imitated by every rational being. The conduct
of this young man, upon the present occasion, strongly points out the
difference which had taken place, in the progress of civilization,
between the inhabitants of the Society islands and those of New
Zealand. It was our commander's firm opinion, that the only human
flesh which was eaten by these people was that of their enemies, who
had been slain in battle.

During the stay of our voyagers in Queen Charlotte's Sound, they were
plentifully supplied with fish, procured from the natives at a very
easy rate; and, besides the vegetables afforded by their own gardens,
they every where found plenty of scurvy-grass and celery. These
Captain Cook ordered to be dressed every day for all his hands. By the
attention which he paid to his men in the article of provisions, they
had for three months lived principally on a fresh diet, and, at this
time, there was not a sick or corbutic person on board.

The morning before the captain sailed, he wrote a memorandum,
containing such information as he thought necessary for Captain
Furneaux, in case he should put into the sound. This memorandum was
buried in a bottle under the root of a tree in the garden; and in such
a manner, that it could not avoid being discovered, if either Captain
Furneaux, or any other European, should chance to arrive at the cove.

Our commander did not leave New Zealand without making such remarks on
the coast between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser as may be of
service to future navigators. It being now the unanimous opinion that
the Adventure was no where upon the island, Captain Cook gave up all
expectations of seeing her any more during the voyage. This
circumstance, however, did not discourage him from fully exploring the
southern parts of the Pacific ocean, in the doing of which he intended
to employ the whole of the ensuing season. When he quitted the coast,
he had the satisfaction to find that not a man of the crew was
dejected, or thought that the dangers, they had yet to go through,
were to the least augmented by their being alone. Such was the
confidence they placed in their commander, that they were as ready to
proceed cheerfully to the south, or wherever he might lead them, as if
the Adventure, or even a larger number of ships had been in company.

On the 26th of November, Captain Cook sailed from New Zealand in
search of a continent, and steered to the south, inclining to the
east. Some days after this, our navigators reckoned themselves to be
antipodes to their friends in London, and consequently were at as
great a distance from them as possible. The first ice island was seen
on the 12th of December, farther south than the first ice which had
been met with after leaving the Cape of Good Hope in the preceding
year. In the progress of the voyage, ice islands continually occurred,
and the navigation became more and more difficult and dangerous. When
our people were in the latitude of 67 5' south, they all at once got
within such a cluster of these islands, together with a large quantity
of loose pieces, that to keep clear of them was a matter of the utmost
difficulty. On the 22nd of the month, the Resolution was in the
highest latitude she had yet reached; and circumstances now became so
unfavourable, that our commander thought of returning more to the
north. Here there was no probability of finding any land, or a
possibility of getting farther south. To have proceeded, therefore, to
the east in this latitude, must have been improper, not only on
account of the ice, but because a vast space of sea to the north must
have been left unexplored, in which there might lie a large tract of
country. It was only by visiting those parts, that it could be
determined whether such a supposition was well founded. As our
navigators advanced to the north-east on the 24th, the ice islands
increased so fast upon them, that, at noon, they could see nearly a
hundred around them, besides an immense number of small pieces. In
this situation they spent Christmas-day, much in the same manner as
they had done in the former year. Happily our people had continual
day-light, and clear weather for had it been as foggy as it was on
some preceding days, nothing less than a miracle could have saved them
from being dashed to pieces.

While the Resolution was in the high latitudes many of her company
were attacked with a slight fever, occasioned by colds. The disorder,
however, yielded to the simplest remedies, and was generally removed
in a few days. On the 5th of January, 1774, the ship not being then in
much more than fifty degrees of latitude, there were only one or two
persons on the sick list.

After Captain Cook, agreeably to his late resolution, had traversed a
large extent of ocean, without discovering land, he again directed his
course to the southward. By the 30th of the month, through
obstructions and difficulties, which, from their similar nature to
those already mentioned, it would be tedious to repeat, he reached to
the seventy-first degree of latitude. Thus far had he gone: but to
have proceeded farther would have been the height of folly and
madness. It would have been exposing himself, his men, and his ship to
the utmost danger, and perhaps to destruction, without the least
prospect of advantage. The captain was of opinion, as indeed were most
of the gentlemen on board, that the ice now in sight extended quite to
the pole, or might join to some land, to which it might be fixed from
the earliest time. If, however, there be such land, it can afford no
better retreat for birds, or any other animals, than the ice itself,
with which it must be wholly covered. Though our commander had not
only the ambition of going farther than any one had done before, but
of proceeding as far as it was possible for man to go, he was the less
dissatisfied with the interruption he now met with, as it shortened
the dangers and hardships inseparable from the navigation of the
southern polar regions. In fact he was impelled by inevitable
necessity to tack, and stand back to the north.

The determination which Captain Cook now formed was to spend the
ensuing winter within the tropic, if he met with no employment before
he came there. He was well satisfied, that no continent was to be
found in this ocean, but what must lie so far to the south, as to be
wholly inaccessible on account of ice. If there existed a continent in
the southern Atlantic Ocean, he was sensible that he could not explore
it, without having the whole summer before them. Upon a supposition,
on the other hand, that there is no land there he might undoubtedly
have reached the Cape of Good Hope by April. In that case, he would
have put an end to the finding of a continent; which was indeed the
first object of the voyage. But this could not satisfy the extensive
and magnanimous mind of our commander. He had a good ship, expressly
sent out on discoveries, a healthy crew, and was not in want either of
stores or of provisions. In such circumstances, to have quitted this
Southern Pacific Ocean, would, he thought, have been betraying not
only a want of perseverance, but of judgment, in supposing it to have
been so well explored, that nothing farther could be done. Although he
had proved that there was no continent but what must lie far to the
south, there remained, nevertheless, room for very large islands in
places wholly unexamined. Many, likewise, of those which had formerly
been discovered had been but imperfectly explored, and their
situations were as imperfectly known. He was also pursuaded, that his
continuing some time longer in this sea would be productive of
improvements in navigation and geography, as well as in other
sciences.

In consequence of these views, it was Captain Cook's intention first
to go in search of the land said to have been discovered by Juan
Fernandez, in the last century. If he should fail in finding this
land, he proposed to direct his course in quest of Easter Island or
Davis's Land, the situation of which was known with so little
certainty, that none of the attempts lately made for its discovery had
been successful. He next intended to get within the tropic, and then
to proceed to the west, touching at, and settling the situations of
such islands, as he might meet with till he arrived at Otaheite, where
it was necessary for him to stop, to look for the Adventure. It was
also in his contemplation to run as far west as the Tierra Austral del
Espiritu Santo, which was discovered by Quiros, and to which M. de
Bougainville has given the name of the Great Cyclades. From this land,
it was the captain's plan to steer to the south, and so back to the
east, between the latitudes of fifty and sixty. In the execution of
this plan, it was his purpose, if possible, to attain the length of
Cape Horn in the ensuing November, when he should have the best part
of the summer before him, to explore the southern part of the Atlantic
Ocean. Great as was this design, our commander thought it capable of
being carried into execution; and when he communicated it to his
officers, he had the satisfaction of finding that it received their
zealous and cheerful concurrence. They displayed the utmost readiness
for executing, in the most effectual manner, every measure he thought
proper to adopt. With such good examples to direct them, the seamen
were always obedient and alert; and on the present occasion, so far
were they from wishing the voyage to be concluded, that they rejoiced
at the prospect of its being prolonged another year, and of soon
enjoying the benefits of a milder climate.

In pursuing his course to the north, Captain Cook became well assured,
that the discovery of Juan Fernandez, if any such was ever made, could
be nothing more than a small island. At this time, the captain was
attacked by a bilious colic, the violence of which confined him to his
bed. The management of the ship, upon this occasion, was left to Mr.
Cooper, the first officer, who conducted her entirely to his
commander's satisfaction. It was several days before the most
dangerous symptoms of Captain Cook's disorder were removed; during
which time, Mr. Patten the surgeon, in attending upon him, manifested
not only the skilfulness of a physician, but the tenderness of a
nurse. When the captain began to recover, a favourite dog, belonging
to Mr. Forster, fell a sacrifice to his tender stomach. There was no
other fresh meat whatever on board, and he could eat not only of the
broth which was made of it, but of the flesh itself, when there was
nothing else that he was capable of tasting. Thus did he derive
nourishment and strength from food, which to most people in Europe,
would have been in the highest degree disgusting, and productive of
sickness. The necessity of the case overcame every feeling of dislike.

On the 11th of March, our navigators came within sight of Easter
Island, or Davis's Land; their transactions at which place were of too
little moment to deserve a particular recital. The inhabitants are, in
general, a slender race. In colour, features, and language, they bear
such an affinity to the people of the more western isles, that there
can be no doubt of their having been descended from one common
original. It is indeed extraordinary, that the same nation should have
spread themselves to so wide an extent, as to take in almost a fourth
part of the circumference of the globe. With regard to the disposition
of the natives of Easter Island, it is friendly and hospitable; but
they are as much addicted to stealing, as any of their neighbours. The
island itself hath so little to recommend it, that no nation need to
contend for the honour of its discovery. So sparing has nature been of
her favours to this spot, that there is in it no safe anchorage, no
wood for fuel, no fresh water worth taking on board. The most
remarkable objects in the country are some surprising gigantic
statues, which were first seen by Roggewein.

It was with pleasure that our commander quitted a place, which could
afford such slender accommodations to voyagers, and directed his
course for the Marquesas Islands. He had not been long at sea, before
he was again attacked by his bilious disorder. The attack, however,
was not so violent as the former one had been. He had reason to
believe, that the return of his disease was owing to his having
exposed and fatigued himself too much at Easter Island.

On the 6th and 7th of April, our navigators came within sight of four
islands, which they knew to be the Marquesas. To one of them, which
was a new discovery, Captain Cook gave the name of Hood's Island,
after that of the young gentleman by whom it was first seen. As soon
as the ship was brought to an anchor in Madre de Dios, or Resolution
Bay, in the Island of St. Christina, a traffic commenced, in the
course of which the natives would frequently keep our goods, without
making any return. At last the captain was obliged to fire a
musket-ball over one man, who had several times treated the English in
this manner. This produced only a temporary effect. Too many of the
Indians having come on board, our commander, who was going into a boat
to find a convenient place for mooring the ship, said to the officers,
"You must look well after these people or they will certainly carry
off something or other." Scarcely had he gotten into the boat, when he
was informed, that they had stolen an iron stanchion from the opposite
gangway, and were carrying it off. Upon this he ordered his men to
fire over the canoe, till he could get round in the boat, but not to
kill any one. Such, however, was the noise made by the natives, that
the order was not heard; and the unhappy thief was killed at the first
shot. All the Indians having retired with precipitation, in
consequence of this unfortunate accident, Captain Cook followed them
into the bay, prevailed upon some of them to come alongside his boat,
and, by suitable presents, so far conciliated their minds, that their
fears seemed to be in a great measure allayed. The death of their
countryman did not cure them of their thievish disposition; but, at
length, it was somewhat restrained by their conviction, that no
distance secured them from the reach of our muskets. Several smaller
instances of their talent at stealing, the captain thought proper to
overlook.

The provisions obtained at St. Christina were yams, plantains,
breadfruit, a few cocoa-nuts, fowls, and small pigs. For a time, the
trade was carried on upon reasonable terms: but the market was at last
ruined by the indiscretion of some young gentlemen, who gave away in
exchange various articles which the inhabitants had not seen before,
and which captivated their fancy above nails, or more useful iron
tools. One of the gentleman had given for a pig a very large quantity
of red feathers, which he had gotten at Amsterdam. The effect of this
was particularly fatal. It was not possible to support the trade, in
the manner in which it was now begun, even for a single day. When,
therefore, our commander found that he was not likely to be supplied,
on any conditions, with sufficient refreshments, and that the island
was neither very convenient for taking in wood and water, nor for
affording the necessary repairs of the ship, he determined to proceed
immediately to some other place, where the wants of his people could
be effectually relieved. After having been nineteen weeks at sea, and
having lived all that time upon salt diet, a change in their food
could not avoid being peculiarly desirable: and yet, on their arrival
at St. Christina, it could scarcely be asserted that a single man was
sick; and there were but a few who had the least complaint of any
kind. 'This,' says Captain Cook, 'was undoubtedly owing to the many
antiscorbutic articles we had on board, and to the great attention of
the surgeon, who was remarkably careful to apply them in time.' It may
justly be added, that this was likewise owing to the singular care of
the captain himself, and to the exertions of his authority, in
enforcing the excellent regulations which his wisdom and humanity had
adopted.

The chief reason for our commander's touching at the Marquesas
Islands, was to fix their situation; that being the only circumstance
in which the nautical account of them, given in Mr. Dalrymple's
collection, is deficient. It was farther desirable to settle this
point, as it would lead to a more accurate knowledge of Mendana's
other discoveries. Accordingly, Captain Cook has marked the situation
of the Marquesas with his usual correctness. He has also taken care to
describe the particular cove in Resolution Bay, in the island of St.
Christina, which is most convenient for obtaining wood and water.

It is remarkable, with respect to the inhabitants of the Marquesas
Islands, that collectively taken, they are, without exception the
finest race of people in this sea. Perhaps they surpass all other
nations in symmetry of form, and regularity of features. It is plain,
however, from the affinity of their language to that of Otaheite and
the Society Isles, that they are of the same origin. Of this affinity
the English were fully sensible, though they could not converse with
them; but Oedidee was capable of doing it tolerably well.

From the Marquesas, Captain Cook steered for Otaheite, with a view of
falling in with some of the islands discovered by former navigators,
and especially by the Dutch, the situation of which had not been
accurately determined. In the course of the voyage, he passed a number
of low islots, connected together by reefs of coral rocks. One of the
islands, on which Lieutenant Cooper went on shore, with two boats well
armed, was called by the natives Tiookea. It had been discovered and
visited by Captain Byron. The inhabitants of Tiookea are of a much
darker colour than those of the higher islands, and appeared to be
more fierce in their dispositions. This may be owing to their manner
of gaining their subsistence, which is chiefly from the sea, and to
their being much exposed to the sun and the weather. Our voyagers
observed, that they were stout well-made men, and that they had marked
on their bodies the figure of a fish, which was a good emblem of their
profession.

Besides passing by St. George's Islands, which had been so named by
Captain Byron, our commander made the discovery of four others. These
he called Palliser's Isles, in honour of his particular friend, Sir
Hugh Palliser. The inhabitants seemed to be the same sort of people as
those of Tiookea, and, like them, were armed with long pikes. Captain
Cook could not determine with any degree of certainty, whether the
group of isles he had lately seen, were, or were not, any of those
that had been discovered by the Dutch navigators. This was owing to
the neglect of recording, with sufficient accuracy, the situation of
their discoveries. Our commander, hath, in general, observed with
regard to this part of the ocean, that, from the latitude of twenty
down to fourteen or twelve, and from the meridian of a hundred and
thirty-eight to a hundred and forty-eight or a hundred and fifty west,
it is so strewed with low isles, that a navigator cannot proceed with
too much caution.

On the 22nd of April, Captain Cook reached the Island of Otaheite, and
anchored in Matavia Bay. As his chief reason for putting in at this
place was to give Mr. Wales an opportunity of ascertaining the error
Of the watch by the known longitude, and to determine anew her rate of
going, the first object was to land the instruments, and to erect
tents for the reception of a guard, and such other people, as it was
necessary to have on shore. Sick there were none; for the refreshments
which had been obtained at the Marquesas had removed every complaint
of that kind.

From the quantity of provisions, which, contrary to expectation, our
commander now found at Otaheite, he determined to make a longer stay
in the island than he had at first intended. Accordingly, he took
measures for the repairs of the ship, which the high southern
latitudes had rendered indispensably necessary.

During Captain Cook's stay at Otaheite, he maintained a most friendly
connexion with the inhabitants; and a continual interchange of visits
was preserved between him and Otoo, Towha, and other chiefs of the
country. His traffic with them was greatly facilitated by his having
fortunately brought with him some red parrot feathers from the island
of Amsterdam. These were jewels of high value in the eyes of the
Otaheitans. The captain's stock in trade was by this time greatly
exhausted; so that, if it had not been for the feathers, he would have
found it difficult to have supplied the ship with the necessary
refreshments.

Among other entertainments which our commander and the rest of the
English gentlemen met with at Otaheite, one was a grand naval review.
The vessels of war consisted of a hundred and sixty large double
canoes, well equipped, manned, and armed. They were decorated with
flags and streamers; and the chiefs, together with all those who were
on the fighting stages, were dressed in their war habits. The whole
fleet made a noble appearance; such as our voyagers had never seen
before in this sea, or could ever have expected. Besides the vessels
of war, there were a hundred and seventy sail of smaller double
canoes, which seemed to be designed for transports and victuallers.
Upon each of them was a little house; and they were rigged with mast
and sail, which was not the case with the war canoes. Captain Cook
guessed, that there were no less than seven thousand seven hundred and
sixty men in the whole fleet. He was not able to obtain full
information concerning the design of this armament.

Notwithstanding the agreeable intercourse that was, in general,
maintained between our commander and the people of Otaheite,
circumstances occasionally happened, which called for peculiar
exertions of his prudence and resolution. One of the natives, who had
attempted to steal a water-cask from the watering-place, was caught in
the fact, sent on board, and put in irons. In this situation, he was
seen by King Otoo, and other chiefs. Captain Cook having made known to
them the crime of their countryman, Otoo entreated that he might be
set at liberty. This the captain however refused, alleging, that since
he punished his own people, when they committed the least offence
against Otoo's, it was but just that this man should also be punished.
As Captain Cook knew that Otoo would not punish him, he resolved to do
it himself. Accordingly, he directed the criminal to be carried on
shore to the tents, and having himself followed, with the chiefs and
other Otaheitans, he ordered the guard out, under arms, and commanded
the man to be tied up to a post. Otoo again solicited the culprit's
release, and in this he was seconded by his sister, but in vain. The
captain expostulated with him on the conduct of the man, and of the
Indians in general; telling him, that neither he nor any of the ship's
company, took the smallest matter of property from them without first
paying for it; enumerating the articles which the English had given in
exchange for such and such things; and urging, that it was wrong in
them to steal from those who were their friends. He added, that the
punishing of the guilty person would be the means of saving the lives
of several of Otoo's people, by deterring them from committing crimes
of the like nature, and thus preventing them from the danger of being
shot to death, which would certainly happen, at one time or other, if
they persisted in their robberies. With these arguments the king
appeared to be satisfied, and only desired that the man might not be
killed. Captain Cook then directed, that the crowd, which was very
great, should be kept at a proper distance, and, in the presence of
them all, ordered the fellow two dozen of lashes with a
cat-o'-nine-tails. This punishment the man sustained with great
firmness, after which he was set at liberty. When the natives were
going away, Towha called them back, and, with much gracefulness of
action, addressed them in a speech of nearly half an hour in length,
the design of which was to condemn their present conduct, and to
recommend a different one for the future. To make a farther impression
upon the minds of the inhabitants, our commander ordered his marines
to go through their exercises, and to load and fire in volleys with
ball. As they were very quick in their manoeuvres, it is more easy to
conceive than to describe the amazement which possessed the Indians
during the whole time, and especially those of them who had not seen
any thing of the kind before.

The judicious will discern, with regard to this narrative, that it
throws peculiar light on Captain Cook's character. Nor is it an
uncurious circumstance in the history of human society, that a
stranger should thus exercise jurisdiction over the natives of a
country, in the presence of the prince of that country, without his
authority, and even contrary to his solicitations.

Another disagreeable altercation with the inhabitants of Otaheite
arose from the negligence of one of the English sentinels on shore.
Having either slept or quitted his post, an Indian seized the
opportunity of carrying off his musket. When any extraordinary theft
was committed, it immediately excited such an alarm among the natives
in general, from their fear of Captain Cook's resentment, that they
fled from their habitations, and a stop was put to the traffic for
provisions. On the present occasion, the captain had no small degree
of trouble; but, by his prudent conduct, the musket was recovered,
peace restored, and commerce again opened. In the differences which
happened with the several people he met with in his voyages, it was a
rule with him, never to touch the least article of their property, any
farther than to detain their canoes for a while, when it became
absolutely necessary. He always chose the most mild and equitable
methods of bringing them to reason; and in this he not only succeeded,
but frequently put things upon a better footing than if no contention
had taken place.

During this visit to Otaheite, fruit and other refreshments were
obtained in great plenty. The relief arising from them was the more
agreeable and salutary, as the bread of the ship was in a bad
condition. Though the biscuit had been aired and picked at New
Zealand, it was now in such a state of decay, that it was necessary
for it to undergo another airing and cleaning, in which much of it was
found wholly rotten, and unfit to be eaten. This decay was judged to
be owing to the ice our navigators had frequently taken in, when to
the southward, which made the hold of the vessel cold and damp, and to
the great heat that succeeded when they came to the north. Whatever
was the cause, the loss was so considerable, that the men were put to
a scanty allowance in this article, with the additional mortification,
of the bread's being bad as could be used.

Two goats, that had been given by Captain Furneaux to Otoo, in the
former part of the voyage, seemed to promise fair for answering the
purposes for which they were left upon the island. The ewe, soon
after, had two female kids, which were now so far grown as to be
almost ready to propagate. At the same time, the old ewe was again
with kid. The people were very fond of them, and they were in
excellent condition. From these circumstances, Captain cook
entertained a hope, that, in a course of years they would multiply so
much, as to be extended over all the isles of the Southern Ocean. The
like success did not attend the sheep which had been left in the
country. These speedily died, one excepted, which was said to be yet
alive. Our navigators also furnished the natives with cats, having
given away no less than twenty at Otaheite, besides some which had
been made presents of at Ulietea and Huaheine.

With regard to the number of the inhabitants of Otaheite, our
commander collected, from comparing several facts together, that,
including women and children, there could not be less, in the whole
island, than two hundred and four thousand. This number, at first
sight, exceeded his belief. But when he came to reflect on the vast
swarms of people that appeared whereever he went, he was convinced,
that the estimate was agreeable to truth.

Such was the friendly treatment which our voyagers met with at
Otaheite, that one of the gunner's mates was induced to form a plan
for remaining in the country. As he knew that he could not execute his
scheme with success, while the Resolution continued in Matavai Bay, he
took the opportunity, when she was ready to quit it, and the sails
were set for the purpose, to slip overboard. Being a good swimmer, he
had no doubt of getting safe to a canoe, which was at some distance
ready to receive him; for his design was concerted with the natives,
and had even been encouraged by Otoo. However, he was discovered
before he had gotten clear of the ship, and a boat being presently
hoisted out, he was taken up, and brought back to the vessel. When our
commander reflected on this man's situation, he did not think him very
culpable, or his desire of staying in the island so extraordinary, as
might at first view be imagined. He was a native of Ireland, and had
sailed in the Dutch service. Captain Cook, on his return from his
former voyage, had picked him up at Batavia, and had kept him in his
employment ever since. It did not appear, that he had either friends
or connexions, which could bind him to any particular part of the
world. All nations being alike to him, where could he be more happy
than at Otaheite? Here, in one of the finest climates of the globe, he
could enjoy not only the necessaries, but the luxuries of life, in
ease and plenty. The captain seems to think, that if the man had
applied to him in time, he might have given his consent to his
remaining in the country.

On the 15th of May, Captain Cook anchored in O'Wharre Harbour, in the
island of Huaheine. He was immediately visited by his friend Oree, and
the same agreeable intercourse subsisted between the captain and this
good old chief, which had formerly taken place. Red feathers were not
here in such estimation as they had been at Otaheite; the natives of
Huaheine having the good sense to give a preference to the more useful
articles of nails and axes. During the stay of our voyagers in the
island, some alarms were occasioned by the thievish disposition of
several of the inhabitants; but matters subsided without any material
consequences. A solemn march, which our commander made through part of
the country, at the head of forty-eight men, tended to impress the
Indians with a sense of his power and authority. In fact, their
attempts at stealing had been too much invited by the indiscretion of
some of the English, who unguardedly separated themselves in the
woods, for the purpose of killing birds; and who managed their muskets
so unskillfully, as to render them less formidable in the eyes of the
natives.

I cannot persuade myself to omit a dramatic entertainment, at which
several of the gentlemen belonging to the Resolution attended one
evening. The piece represented a girl as running away with our
navigators from Otaheite; and the story was partly founded in truth;
for a young woman had taken a passage in the ship, down to Ulietea.
She happened to be present at the representation of her own
adventures; which had such an effect upon her, that it was with great
difficulty that she could be prevailed upon by the English gentlemen
to see the play out, or to refrain from tears while it was acting. The
piece concluded with the reception which she was supposed to meet with
from her friends at her return; and it was a reception that was by no
means favourable. As these people, when they see occasion, can add
little extempore pieces to their entertainments, it is reasonable to
imagine, that the representation now described was intended as a
satire against the girl, and to discourage others from following her
steps. Such is the sense which they entertain of the propriety of
female decorum.

During Captain Cook's stay at Huaheine, breadfruit, cocoa-nuts, and
other vegetable productions, were procured in abundance, but not a
sufficiency of hogs to supply the daily expense of the ship. This was
partly owing to a want of proper articles for traffic. The captain was
obliged, therefore, to set the smiths at work to make different sorts
of nails, iron tools, and instruments, in order to enable him to
obtain refreshments at the islands he was yet to visit, and to support
his credit and influence among the natives.

When our commander was ready to sail from Huaheine, Oree was the last
man that went out of the vessel. At parting, Captain Cook told him,
that they should meet each other no more; at which he wept and said,
'Let your sons come, we will treat them well.'

At Ulietea, to which the captain next directed his course, the events
that occurred were nearly similar to those which have already been
related. He had always been received by the people of this island in
the most hospitable manner, and they were justly entitled to every
thing which it was in his power to grant. They expressed the deepest
concern at his departure, and were continually importuning him to
return. Oree the chief, and his wife and daughter, but especially the
two latter, scarcely ever ceased weeping. Their grief was so
excessive, that it might, perhaps, be doubted whether it was entirely
sincere and unaffected; but our commander was of opinion that it was
real. At length, when he was ready to sail, they took a most
affectionate leave. Oree's last request to Captain Cook was, that he
would return; and when he could not obtain a promise to that effect,
he asked the name of his burying-place. To this strange question the
captain answered, without hesitation, that it was Stepney; that being
the parish in which he lived when in London. Mr. Forster, to whom the
same question was proposed, replied with greater wisdom and
recollection, that no man, who used the sea, could say where he should
be buried.

As our commander could not promise, or even then suppose, that more
English ships would be sent to the southern isles, Oedidee, who for so
many months had been the faithful companion of our navigators, chose
to remain in his native country. But he left them with a regret fully
demonstrative of his esteem and affection, nor could any thing have
torn him from them, but the fear of never returning. When Oree pressed
so ardently Captain Cook's return, he sometimes gave such answers, as
left room for hope. At these answers Oedidee would eagerly catch, take
him on one side, and ask him over again. The captain declares, that he
had not words to describe the anguish which appeared in this young
man's breast, when he went away. He looked up at the ship, burst into
tears, and then sunk down into the canoe. Oedidee was a youth of good
parts, and of a docile, gentle, and humane disposition; but as he was
almost wholly ignorant of the religion, government, manners, customs,
and traditions of his countrymen, and the neighbouring islands, no
material knowledge could have been collected from him, had our
commander brought him away. He would, however, in every respect, have
been a better specimen of the nation than Omai.

When Captain Cook first came to these islands, he had some thoughts of
visiting Tupia's famous Bolabola. But having obtained a plentiful
supply of refreshments, and the route he had in view allowing him no
time to spare, he laid this design aside, and directed his course to
the west. Thus did he take his leave, as he then thought, for ever, of
these happy isles, on which benevolent nature has spread her luxuriant
sweets with a lavish hand; and in which the natives, copying the
bounty of Providence, are equally liberal; being ready to contribute
plentifully and cheerfully to the wants of navigators.(8)

(Footnote 8: From Mr. Wales's observations it appeared, that
during five mouths, in which the watch had passed through the
extremes of heat and cold, it went better in the cold than in the
hot climates.)

On the 6th of June, the day after our voyagers left Ulietea, they saw
land, which they found to be a low reef island, about four leagues in
compass, and of a circular form. This was Howe Island, which had been
discovered by Captain Wallis. Nothing remarkable occurred from tills
day to the 16th, when land was again seen. It was another reef island;
and being a new discovery, Captain Cook gave it the name of Palmerston
Island, in honour to Lord Palmerston. On the 20th, fresh land
appeared, which was perceived to be inhabited. This induced our
commander to go on shore with a party of gentlemen; but the natives
were found to be fierce and untractable. All endeavours to bring them
to a parley were to no purpose; for they came on with the ferocity of
wild boars, and instantly threw their darts. Two or three muskets
discharged in the air, did not prevent one of them from advancing
still farther, and throwing another dart, or rather a spear, which
passed close over Captain Cook's shoulder. The courage of this man had
nearly cost him his life. When he threw his spear, he was not five
paces from the captain, who had resolved to shoot him for his own
preservation. It happened, however, that his musket missed fire; a
circumstance on which he afterward reflected with pleasure. When he
joined his party, and tried his musket in the air, it went off
perfectly well. This island, from the disposition and behaviour of the
natives, with whom no intercourse could be established, and from whom
no benefit could be received, was called by our commander Savage
Island. It is about eleven leagues in circuit; is of a round form and
good height: and has deep waters close to its shores. Among its other
disadvantages, it is not furnished with a harbour.

In pursuing his course to the west-south-west, Captain Cook passed by
a number of small islands, and, on the 26th, anchored on the north
side of Anamocka, or Rotterdam. A traffic immediately commenced with
the natives, who brought what provisions they had, being chiefly yams
and shaddocks, which they exchanged for nails, beads, and other small
articles. Here, as in many former cases, the captain was put to some
trouble, on account of the thievish disposition of the inhabitants. As
they had gotten possession of an adze and two muskets, he found it
necessary to exert himself with peculiar vigour, in order to oblige
them to make a restitution. For this purpose, he commanded all the
marines to be armed, and sent on shore; and the result of this measure
was, that the things which had been stolen were restored. In the
contest, Captain Cook was under the necessity of firing some small
shot at a native, who had distinguished himself by his resistance. His
countrymen afterward reported that he was dead; but he was only
wounded, and that not in a dangerous manner. Though his sufferings
were the effects of his own misbehaviour the captain endeavoured to
soften them by making him a present, and directing his wounds to be
dressed by the surgeon of the ship.

The first time that our commander landed at Anamocka, an old lady
presented him with a girl, and gave him to understand that she was at
his service. Miss, who had previously been instructed, wanted a
spikenail or a shirt, neither of which he had to give her; and he
flattered himself, that by making the two women sensible of his
poverty, he should easily get clear of their importunities. In this,
however, he was mistaken. The favours of the young lady were offered
upon credit; and on his declining the proposal, the old woman began to
argue with him, and then to abuse him. As far as he could collect from
her countenance and her actions, the design of her speech was both to
ridicule and reproach him, for refusing to entertain so fine a young
woman. Indeed the girl was by no means destitute of beauty; but
Captain Cook found it more easy to withstand her allurements than the
abuses of the ancient matron, and therefore hastened into his boat.

While the captain was on shore at Anamocka, he got the names of twenty
islands, which lie between the north-west and north-east. Some of them
were in sight; and two of them, which are most to the west, are
remarkable on account of their great height. These are Amattafoa and
Oghao. From a continual column of smoke which was seen daily ascending
from the middle of Amattafoa, it was judged that there was a volcano
in that island.

Anamocka was first discovered by Tasman, and by him was named
Rotterdam. It is of a triangular form, and each side extends about
three and a half or four miles. From the north-west to the south of
the island, round by the east and north, it is encompassed by a number
of small isles, sand-banks, and breakers. An end could not be seen to
their extent to the north, and they may possibly reach as far to the
south as Amsterdam or Tongataboo. Together with Middleburg, or Eaoowe,
and Pilsart, these form a group, containing about three degrees of
latitude, and two of longitude. To this group Captain Cook had given
the name of the Friendly Isles, or Archipelago, from the firm alliance
and friendship which seemed to subsist among their inhabitants, and
from their courteous behaviour to strangers. The same group may
perhaps be extended much farther, even down to Boscawen and Keppel's
Isles, which were discovered by Captain Wallis, and lie nearly in the
same meridian.

Whilst our commander was at Anamocka, he was particularly assiduous to
prevent the introduction of a certain disorder. As some of his people
brought with them the remains of this disease from the Society Isles,
he prohibited them from having any female intercourse, and he had
reason to believe that his endeavours were successful.

The productions of Rotterdam, and the persons, manners, and customs of
its inhabitants, are similar to those of Amsterdam. It is not, however
equally plentiful in its fruits, nor is every part of it in so high a
state of cultivation. Neither hath it arisen to the same degree of
wealth, with regard to cloth, matting, ornaments, and other articles
which constitute the chief riches of the islanders of the Southern
Ocean.

Pursuing their course to the west, our navigators discovered land on
the 1st of July; and, upon a nearer approach, found it to be a small
island, to which, on account of the number of turtle that were seen
upon the coast, Captain Cook gave the name of Turtle Isle. On the
16th, high land was seen bearing south-west, which no one doubted to
be the Australis del Espirito Santo of Quiros, and which is called by
M. de Bougainville the Great Cyclades. After exploring the coast for
some days, the captain came to an anchor, in a harbour in the island
of Mallicollo. One of his first objects was to commence a friendly
intercourse with the natives; but, while he was thus employed, an
accident occurred, which threw all into confusion, though in the end
it was rather advantageous than hurtful to the English. A fellow in a
canoe, having been refused admittance into one of our boats, bent his
bow to shoot a poisoned arrow at the boatkeeper. Some of his
countrymen having prevented his doing it that instant, time was given
to acquaint our commander with the transaction, who immediately ran
upon deck. At this minute, the Indian had directed his bow to the
boatkeeper; but upon being called to by Captain Cook, he pointed it at
him. Happily, the captain had a musket in his hand loaded with small
shot, and gave him the contents. By this however, he was only
staggered for a moment; for he still held his bow in the attitude of
shooting. A second discharge of the same nature made him drop it, and
obliged him, together with the other natives who were in the canoe, to
paddle off with all possible celerity. At this time, some of the
inhabitants began to shoot arrows from another quarter. A musket
discharged in the air had no effect upon them, but no sooner was a
four-pound ball shot over their heads than they fled in the utmost
confusion.

A few hours after these transactions, the English put off in two
boats, and landed in the face of four or five hundred people, who were
assembled on the shore and who, though they were all armed with bows
and arrows, clubs, and spears, made not the least opposition. On the
contrary, when they saw Captain Cook advance with nothing but a green
branch in his hand, one of them, who appeared to be a chief, giving
his bow and arrows to another, met the captain in the water, bearing
also a green branch. These being mutually exchanged in token of
friendship, the chief led our commander to the crowd, to whom he
immediately distributed presents. The marines, in the mean time, were
drawn up on the beach. Captain Cook then acquainted the Indians, by
signs, that he wanted wood; and in the same manner permission was
granted him to cut down the trees.

Much traffic could not be carried on with these people, because they
set no value on nails, or iron tools, or, indeed, on any articles
which our navigators could furnish. In such exchanges as they did
make, and which were principally of arrows for pieces of cloth, they
distinguished themselves by their honesty. When the ship had begun to
sail from the island, and they might easily, in consequence of their
canoes dropping astern, have avoided delivering the things they had
been paid for, they used their utmost efforts to get up with her, that
they might discharge their obligations. One man, in particular,
followed the Resolution, a considerable time, and did not reach her
till the object which brought him was forgotten. As soon as he came
alongside the vessel, he held up the thing which had been purchased;
and, though several of the crew offered to buy it, he insisted upon
delivering it to the person to whom it had been sold. That person, not
knowing him again, would have given something in return; but this he
refused, and shewed him what he had before received. There was only a
single instance in which the natives took, or even attempted to take,
any thing from our voyagers, by any means whatever; and in that case
restitution was immediately made, without trouble and without
altercation.

The inhabitants of Mallicollo, in general, are the most ugly and ill
proportioned people that Captain Cook had ever seen, and are in every
respect different from all the nations which had been met with in the
Southern Ocean. They are a very dark-coloured, and rather a diminutive
race, with long heads, flat faces, and countenances, which have some
resemblance to that of the monkey. Their hair, which is mostly
black or brown, is short and curly; but not altogether so soft and
woolly as that of a negro. The difference of this people from any whom
our commander had yet visited, appeared not only in their persons but
their language. Of about eighty words, which were collected by Mr.
Forster, scarcely one was found to bear any affinity to the language
spoken in any country or island hitherto described. It was observed by
Captain Cook, that the natives could pronounce most of the English
words with great ease. They had not so much as a name for a dog, and
knew nothing of that animal; for which reason the captain left them a
dog and a bitch; and as they were very fond of them, it was highly
probable that the breed would be fostered and increased.

To the harbour, in which our commander anchored, while he lay at
Mallicollo, he gave the name of Port Sandwich. It has many advantages,
with regard to depth of water, shelter from winds, and lying so near
the shore as to be a cover to those of a ship's company who may be
carrying on any necessary operations at land.

Soon after our navigators had gotten to sea, which was on the 23rd of
July, they discovered three or four small islands, that before had
appeared to be connected. At this time the Resolution was not far from
the Isle of Ambrym, the Isle of Paoom, and the Isle of Apee. On the
next morning, several more islands were discovered, lying off the
south-east point of Apee, and constituting a group, which Captain Cook
called Shepherd's isles, in honour of his learned and valuable friend,
Dr. Shepherd, Plumian professor of Astronomy at Cambridge. The ship
was this day in some danger. It suddenly fell calm, and our voyagers
were left to the mercy of the current, close by the isles, where no
sounding could be found with a line of a hundred and eighty fathoms.
The lands or islands, which lay around the vessel in every direction,
were so numerous, that they could not be counted. At this crisis a
breeze sprung up, which happily relieved the captain and his company
from the anxiety the calm had occasioned.

Amidst the number of islands, that were continually seen by our
navigators, there was only one on which no inhabitants were discerned.
This consisted chiefly of a remarkable peaked rock, which was only
accessible to birds, and which obtained the name of the Monument.

In the farther course of the ship to the southward, our navigators
drew near to certain lands, which they found to consist of one large
island, the southern and western extremities of which extended beyond
their sight. Three or four smaller ones lay off its north side. To the
two principal of these Captain Cook gave the name of Montagu and
Hinchinbrook; and the large island he named Sandwich, in honour of his
noble patron, the Earl of Sandwich. This island, which was spotted
with woods and lawns, agreeably diversified over the whole surface,
and which had a gentle slope from the hills down to the sea-coast
exhibited a most beautiful and delightful prospect. The examination of
it was not, however, so much an object with our commander as to
proceed to the south, in order to find the southern extremity of the
Archipelago.

Pursuing his discoveries, Captain Cook came in sight of an island,
which was afterwards known to be called by the natives Erromango.
After coasting it for three days, he brought his vessel to anchor in a
bay there, on the 3rd of August. The next day, he went with two boats
to examine the coast, and to look for a proper landing-place, that he
might obtain a supply of wood and water. At this time, the inhabitants
began to assemble on the shore, and by signs to invite our people to
land. Their behaviour was apparently so friendly, that the captain was
charmed with it; and the only thing which could give him the least
suspicion was, that most of them were armed with clubs, spears, darts,
and bows and arrows. He did not, therefore, remit his vigilance; but
kept his eye continually upon the chief, watching his looks, as well
as his actions. It soon was evident that the intentions of the Indians
were totally hostile. They made a violent attempt to sieze upon one of
the boats; and though, on our commander's pointing a musket at them,
they in some measure desisted, yet they returned in an instant,
seemingly determined to carry their design into execution. At the head
of the party was the chief; while others, who could not come at the
boat, stood behind with darts, stones, and bows and arrows in hand,
ready to support their countrymen. As signs and threats had no effect,
the safety of Captain Cook and his people became the only object of
consideration; and yet he was unwilling to fire on the multitude. He
resolved, therefore, to make the chief alone the victim of his own
treachery, and accordingly aimed his musket at him; but at this
critical moment it missed fire. This circumstance encouraged the
natives to despise our weapons, and to shew the superiority of their
own, by throwing stones and darts and by shooting arrows. Hence it
became absolutely necessary for the captain to give orders to his men
to fire upon the assailants. The first discharge threw them into
confusion; but a second was scarcely sufficient to drive them off the
beach. In consequence of this skirmish, four of the Indians lay, to
all appearance, dead on the shore. However, two of them were afterward
perceived to crawl into the bushes; and it was happy for these people
that not half of the muskets of the English would go off, since
otherwise many more must have fallen. The inhabitants were, at length,
so terrified as to make no farther appearance; and two oars which had
been lost in the conflict, were left standing up against the bushes.

It was observed of these islanders, that they seemed of a different
race from those of Mallicollo, and that they spoke a different
language. They are of a middle size, with a good shape and tolerable
features. Their colour is very dark; and their aspect is not mended by
a custom they have of painting their faces, some with black, and
others with red pigment. As to their hair, it is curly and crisp, and
somewhat woolly. The few women who were seen, and who appeared to be
ugly, wore a kind of petticoat, made either of palm leaves, or a plant
similar in its nature; but the men, like those of Mallicollo, were
almost entirely naked. On account of the treacherous behaviour of the
inhabitants of Erromango, Captain Cook called a promontory, or
peninsula, near which the skirmish happened, _Traitor's Head_.

From this place the captain sailed for an island which had been
discovered before, at a distance, and at which, on account of his
wanting a large quantity of wood and water, he was resolved to make
some stay. At first the natives were disposed to be very hostile but
our commander, with equal wisdom and humanity contrived to terrify
them, without danger to their lives. This was principally effected by
firing a few great guns, at which they were so much alarmed, as
afterwards to be brought to tolerable order. Among these islanders,
many were inclined to be on friendly terms with our navigators, and
especially the old people; whilst most of the younger were daring and
insolent, and obliged the English to keep to their arms. It was
natural enough, that age should be prudent and cautious, and youth
bold and impetuous; and yet this distinction, with regard to the
behaviour of the various nations which had been visited by Captain
Cook, had not occurred before.

The island, where the captain now stayed, was found upon inquiry to be
called, by the inhabitants, Tanna; and three others in its
neighbourhood, and which could be seen from it, were distinguished by
the names of Immer, Erronan or Footoona and Annatom.

From such information of the natives, as our commander could see no
reason to doubt, it appeared, that circumcision was practised among
them, and that they were eaters of human flesh. Concerning the latter
subject, he should never have thought of asking them a single
question, if they had not introduced it themselves, by inquiring
whether the English had the same custom. It hath been argued, that
necessity alone could be the origin of this horrid practice. But as
the people of Tanna are possessed of fine pork and fowls, together
with an abundance of roots and fruits, the plea of necessity cannot be
urged in their behalf. In fact, no instance was seen of their eating
human flesh; and, therefore, there might, perhaps, be some reason to
hesitate, in pronouncing them to be cannibals.

By degrees the inhabitants grew so courteous and civil, as to permit
the English gentlemen to ramble about in the skirts of the woods, and
to shoot in them, without affording them the least molestation, or
shewing any dislike. One day, some boys of the island having gotten
behind thickets, and thrown two or three stones at our people, who
were cutting wood, they were fired at by the petty officers on duty.
Captain Cook, who was then on shore, was alarmed at the report of the
muskets; and, when he was informed of the cause, was much displeased
that so wanton a use should be made of our fire-arms. Proper measures
were taken by him to prevent such conduct for the future.

In the island of Tanna was a volcano, which sometimes made a dreadful
noise, and, at each explosion, which happened every three or four
minutes, threw up fire and smoke in prodigious columns. At one time,
great stones were seen high in the air. At the foot of the hill were
several hot springs; and on the side of it Mr. Forster found some
places whence smoke of a sulphureous smell issued, through cracks or
fissures of the earth. A thermometer that was placed in a little hole
made in one of them, and which in the open air stood only at eighty,
rose to a hundred and seventy. In another instance, the mercury rose
to a hundred and ninety-one. Our commander, being desirous of getting
a nearer and good view of the volcano, set out with a party for that
purpose. But the gentlemen met with so many obstructions from the
inhabitants, who were jealous of their penetrating far into the
country, that they thought proper to return.

It is observable, with respect to the volcano of Tanna, that it is not
on the ridge of the hill to which it belongs, but on its side. Nor is
that hill the highest in the country, for there are others near it of
more than double its height. It was in moist and wet weather that the
volcano was most violent.

When our commander was ready to sail from Tanna, an event happened,
which gave him much concern. Just as our people were getting some logs
into the boat, four or five of the natives stepped forward to see what
they were doing. In consequence of the Indians not being allowed to
come within certain limits, the sentinel ordered them back, upon which
they readily complied. At this time, Captain Cook, who had his eyes
fixed upon them, observed the sentry present his piece to the men. The
captain was going to reprove him for his action, when, to his
inexpressible astonishment, the sentry fired. An attack, so causeless
and extraordinary, naturally threw the natives into great confusion.
Most of them fled, and it was with difficulty that our commander could
prevail upon a few of them to remain. As they ran off, he perceived
one of them to fall, who was immediately lifted up by two others, who
took him into the water, washed his wound, and then led him off. The
wounded person not being carried far, Captain Cook sent for the
surgeon of the ship, and accompanied him to the man, whom they found
expiring. The rascal that had fired pretended that an Indian had laid
an arrow across his bow, and was going to shoot at him: so that he
apprehended himself to be in danger. This, however, was no more than
what the islanders had always done, to shew that they were armed as
well as our voyagers. What rendered, the present incident the more
unfortunate was, that it was not the man who bent the bow, but one who
stood near him, that was shot by the sentry.

The harbour where the captain anchored, during his stay at Tanna, was
called by him Port Resolution, after the name of the ship, she being
the first vessel by which it was ever entered. It is no more than a
little creek, three quarters of a mile in length, and about half that
space in breadth. No place can exceed it in its convenience for taking
in wood and water, which are both close to the shore. The inhabitant
of the island, with whom our commander had the most frequent and
friendly connexions, was named Paowang.

Very little trade could be carried on with the people of Tanna. They
had not the least knowledge of iron; and consequently nails, tools,
and other articles made of that metal, and which are so greedily
sought for in the more eastern isles, were here of no consideration.
Cloth could be of no service to persons who go naked.

Among the productions of the island, there is reason to believe that
the nutmeg-tree might be mentioned. This is collected from the
circumstance of Mr. Forster's having shot a pigeon, in the craw of
which a wild nut-meg was discovered. However, though he took some
pains to find the tree, his endeavours were not attended with success.

It was at first thought by our navigators, that the inhabitants of
Tanna were a race between the natives of the Friendly Islands and
those of Mallicollo; but by a short acquaintance with them they were
convinced, that they had little or no affinity to either, excepting in
their hair. Some few men, women, and children, were seen, whose hair
resembled that of the English. With regard, however, to these persons,
it was obvious, that they were of another nation; and it was
understood that they came from Erronan. Two languages were found to be
spoken in Tanna. One of them, which appeared to have been introduced
from Erronan, is nearly, if not exactly, the same with that of the
Friendly islands. The other, which is the proper language of the
country, and which is judged to be peculiar to Tanna, Erromango, and
Annatom, is different from any that had hitherto been met with by our
voyagers.

The people of Tanna, are of the middle size, and for the most part
slender. There are few tall or stout men among them. In general, they
have good feature and agreeable countenances. Like all the tropical
race, they are active and nimble; and seem to excel in the use of
arms, but not to be fond of labour. With respect to the management of
their weapons, Mr. Wales hath made an observation so honourable to
Homer, that were I to omit it, I should not be forgiven by my
classical readers. 'I must confess,' says Mr. Wales. 'I have often
been led to think the feats which Homer represents his heroes as
performing with their spears, a little too much of the marvellous to
be admitted into an heroic poem; I mean when confined within the
strait stays of Aristotle. Nay, even so great an advocate for him as
Mr. Pope, acknowledges them to be surprising. But since I have seen
what these people can do with their wooden spears, and them badly
pointed, and not of a hard nature, I have not the least exception to
any one passage in that great poet on this account. But if I see fewer
exceptions, I can find infinitely more beauties in him; as he has. I
think, scarcely an action, circumstance, or description of any kind
whatever, relating to a spear, which I have not seen and recognized
among these people; as their whirling motion, and whistling noise, as
they fly; their quivering motion, as they stick in the ground when
they fall; their meditating their aim, when they are going to throw;
and their shaking them in their hand, as they go along.'

On the 20th of August, Captain Cook sailed from Tanna, and employed
all the remainder of the month in a farther examination of the islands
around him. He had now finished his survey of the whole Archipelago,
and had gained a knowledge of it, infinitely superior to what had ever
been attained before. The northern islands of this Archipelago were
first discovered in 1606, by that eminent navigator Quiros, who
considered them as part of the Southern continent, which, at that
time, and till very lately, was supposed to exist. M. de Bougainville
was the next person by whom they were visited, in 1768. This
gentleman, however, besides landing in the Isle of Lepers, only made
the discovery, that the country was not connected, but composed of
islands, which he called the Great Cyclades. Captain Cook, besides
ascertaining the situation and extent of these islands, added to them
several new ones, which had hitherto been unknown, and explored the
whole. He thought, therefore, that he had obtained a right to name
them; and accordingly he bestowed upon them the appellation of the
_New Hebrides_. His title to this honour will not be disputed in
any part of Europe, and certainly not by so enlightened and liberal a
people as the French nation.

The season of the year now rendered it necessary for our commander to
return to the south, while he had yet some time to explore any land he
might meet with between the New Hebrides and New Zealand; at which
last place he intended to touch, that he might refresh his people, and
renew his stock of wood and water for another southern course. With
this view, he sailed on the 1st of September, and on the 4th land was
discovered; in a harbour belonging to which the Resolution came to an
anchor the next day. The design of Captain Cook was not only to visit
the country, but to have an opportunity of observing an eclipse of the
sun, which was soon to happen. An intercourse immediately commenced
with the inhabitants, who, during the whole of the captain's stay,
behaved in a very civil and friendly manner. In return, he was
solicitous to render them every service in his power. To Teabooma the
chief, he sent among other articles, a dog and a bitch, both young,
but nearly full grown. It was some time before Teabooma could believe
that the two animals were intended for him; but when he was convinced
of it, he was lost in an excess of joy. Another, and still more
valuable present, was that of a young boar and sow; which, on account
of the absence of the chief when they were brought to land, were
received with great hesitation and ceremony.

The last time that our commander went on shore at this place, he
ordered an inscription to be cut on a large tree, setting forth the
name of the ship, the date of the year, and other circumstances, which
testified that the English were the first discoverers of the country.
This he had before done, wherever such a ceremony seemed necessary.
How the island was called by the natives, our voyagers could never
learn: and therefore, Captain Cook gave it the name of New Caledonia.
The inhabitants are strong, robust, active, and well made. With regard
to the origin of the nation, the captain judged them to be a race
between the people of Tanna and the Friendly Isles; or between those
of Tanna and the New Zealanders; or all three. Their language is in
some respects a mixture of them all. In their disposition they are
courteous and obliging; and they are not in the least addicted to
pilfering, which is more than can be asserted concerning any other
nation in this sea.

The women of New Caledonia, and those likewise of Tanna, were found to
be much chaster than the females of the more eastern islands. Our
commander never heard that the least favour was obtained from them by
any one of his company. Sometimes, indeed, the women would exercise a
little coquetry, but they went no farther.

The botanists of the ship did not here complain for want of
employment. They were diligent in their researches, and their labours
were amply rewarded. Every day brought some new accession to botanical
knowledge, or that of other branches of natural history.

Every thing being ready to put to sea, Captain Cook weighed anchor on
the 13th of September, with the purpose of examining the coast of New
Caledonia. In pursuing this object, by which he was enabled to add
greatly to nautical and geographical knowledge, the Resolution was
more than once in danger of being lost, and particularly, in the night
of the 28th of the month, she had a narrow escape. Our navigators, on
this occasion, were much alarmed; and daylight shewed that their fears
had not been ill founded. Indeed, breakers had been continually under
their lee, and at a small distance from them; so that they were in the
most imminent danger. 'We owed our safety,' says the captain, 'to the
interposition of Providence, a good look-out, and the very brisk
manner in which the ship was managed.'

Our commander now began to be tired of a coast which he could no
longer explore but at the risk of losing the vessel, and ruining the
whole voyage. He determined, however, not to leave it, till he knew of
what kind some groves of trees were, which, by their uncommon
appearance, had occasioned much speculation, and had been mistaken, by
several of the gentlemen, for bisaltes. Captain Cook was the more
solicitous to ascertain the point, as these trees appeared to be of a
sort, which might be useful to shipping, and had not been seen any
where, but in the southern parts of New Caledonia. They proved to be a
species of spruce pine, very proper for spars, which were then wanted.
The discovery was valuable, as, excepting New Zealand, there was not
an island known, in the South Pacific Ocean, where the ship could
supply herself with a mast or yard, to whatever distress she might be
reduced. It was the opinion of the carpenter of the Resolution, who
was a mastmaker as well as a shipwright, that very good masts might be
made from the trees in question. The wood of them, which is white,
close-grained, tough, and light, is well adapted to that purpose. One
of the small islands where the trees were found, was called by the
captain the Isle of Pines. To another, on account of its affording
sufficient employment to the botanists, during the little time they
stayed upon it, he gave the name of Botany Isle.

Captain Cook now took into serious consideration what was farther to
be done. He had pretty well determined the extent of the south-west
coast of New Caledonia, and would gladly have proceeded to a more
accurate survey of the whole, had he not been deterred, not only by
the dangers he must encounter, but by the time required for the
undertaking, and which he could not possibly spare. Indeed, when he
considered the vast ocean he had to explore to the south; the state
and condition of the ship; the near approach of summer; and that any
material accident might detain him in this sea even for another year,
he did not think it advisable to make New Caledonia any longer the
object of his attention. But though he was thus obliged, by necessity,
for the first time, to leave a coast which he had discovered, before
it was fully surveyed, he did not quit it till he had ascertained the
extent of the country, and proved, that, excepting New Zealand, it was
perhaps the largest island in the Southern Pacific Ocean.

As the Resolution pursued her course from New Caledonia, land was
discovered, which on a nearer approach, was found to be an island, of
good height, and five leagues in circuit. Captain Cook named it
Norfolk Isle, in honour of the noble family of Howard. It was
uninhabited; and the first persons that ever set foot on it were
unquestionably our English navigators. Various trees and plants were
observed that are common at New Zealand; and, in particular, the flax
plant, which is rather more luxuriant here than in any part of that
country. The chief produce of the island is a kind of spruce pine,
exceedingly straight and tall, which grows in great abundance. Such is
the size of many of the trees, that, breast high, they are as thick as
two men can fathom. Among the vegetables of the place, the
palm-cabbage afforded both a wholesome and palatable refreshment; and,
indeed, proved the most agreeable repast that our people had for a
considerable time enjoyed. In addition to this gratification, they had
the pleasure of procuring some excellent fish.

From Norfolk Isle, our commander steered for New Zealand, it being his
intention to touch at Queen Charlotte's Sound, that he might refresh
his crew, and put the ship in a condition to encounter the southern
latitudes. On the 18th of October, he anchored before Ship Cove in
that sound; and the first thing he did, after landing, was to look for
the bottle he had left on the shore, in which was a memorandum. It was
taken away; and it soon appeared, from indubitable circumstances, that
the Adventure had been in the cove after it was quitted by the
Resolution.

Upon visiting the gardens which had been formed at Motuara, they were
found almost in a state of nature, having been wholly neglected by the
inhabitants. Many, however, of the articles were in a flourishing
condition and shewed how well they liked the soil in which they were
planted. It was several days before any of the natives made their
appearance; but when they did so, and recognised Captain Cook and his
friends, joy succeeded to fear. They hurried in numbers out of the
woods, and embraced the English over and over again, leaping and
skipping about like madmen. Amidst all this extravagance of joy, they
were careful to preserve the honour of their females; for they would
not permit some women, who were seen at a distance, to cone near our
people. The captain's whole intercourse with the New Zealanders,
during this his third visit to Queen Charlotte's Sound, was peaceable
and friendly; and one of them, a man apparently of consequence, whose
name was Pedro, presented him with a staff of honour, such as the
chiefs generally carry. In return, our commander dressed Pedro, who
had a fine person, and a good presence, in a suit of old clothes, of
which he was not a little proud.

Captain Cook still continued his solicitude to stock the island with
useful animals; and accordingly, in addition to what he had formerly
done, he ordered two pigs a boar and sow, to be put on shore. There
was reason to believe, that some of the cocks and hens which had
formerly been left here still existed. None of them, indeed, were
seen; but a hen's egg was found, which had not been long laid.

Mr. Wales had now an opportunity of completing his observations with
regard to Queen Charlotte's Sound, so as to ascertain its latitude and
longitude with the utmost accuracy. In the captain's former voyage
there had been an error in this respect. Such were Mr. Wales's
abilities and assiduity, that the same correctness was maintained by
him, in determining the situation of all the other places which were
visited by our navigators.

On the 10th of November, Captain Cook took his departure from New
Zealand, in farther pursuit of his great object, the determination of
the question concerning the existence of a southern continent. Having
sailed till the 27th, in different degrees of latitude, extending from
43 to 55 48' south, he gave up all hopes of finding any more land in
this ocean. He came, therefore, to the resolution of steering directly
for the west entrance of the Straits of Magalhaens, with a view of
coasting the south side of Terra del Fuego, round Cape Horn, to the
Strait Le Maire. As the world had hitherto obtained but a very
imperfect knowledge of this shore, the captain thought that the full
survey of it would be more advantageous, both to navigation and
geography, than any thing he could expect to find in a higher
latitude.

In the prosecution of his voyage, our commander, on the 17th of
December, reached the west coast of Terra del Fuego; and having
continued to range it till the 20th, he came to an anchor in a place
to which he afterwards gave the name of Christmas Sound. Through the
whole course of his various navigations, he had never seen so desolate
a coast. It seems to be entirely composed of rocky mountains, without
the least appearance of vegetation. These mountains terminate to
horrible precipices, the craggy summits of which spire up to a vast
height; so that scarcely any thing in nature can appear with a more
barren and savage aspect, than the whole of the country.

The run which Captain Cook had made directly across the ocean in a
high southern latitude, was believed by him to be the first of the
kind that had ever been carried into execution. He was, therefore,
somewhat particular in remarking every circumstance which seemed to be
in the least material. However, he could not but observe, that he had
never made a passage any where, of such length, or even of a much
shorter extent, in which so few things occurred, that were of an
interesting nature. Excepting the variation of the compass, he knew of
nothing else that was worthy of notice. The captain had now done with
the Southern Pacific Ocean; and he had explored it in such a manner,
that it would be impossible for any one to think that more could be
performed in a single voyage, towards obtaining that end, than had
actually been accomplished.

Barren and dreary as the land is about Christmas Sound, it was not
wholly destitute of some accomodations, which could not fail of being
agreeable to our navigators. Near every harbour they found fresh water
and wood for fuel. The country abounds like-wise with wild fowl, and
particularly with geese; which afforded a refreshment to the whole
crew, that was the more acceptable on account of the approaching
festival. Had not Providence thus happily provided for them, their
Christmas cheer must have been salt beef and pork. Some Madeira wine,
the only article of provision that was mended by keeping, was still
left. This in conjunction with the geese, which were cooked in every
variety of method, enabled our people to celebrate Christmas as
cheerfully as perhaps was done by their friends in England.

The inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, Captain Cook found to be of the
same nation that he had formerly seen in Success Bay; and the same
whom M. de Bougainville has distinguished by the name of Pecharas.
They are a little ugly, half-starved, beardless race, and go almost
naked. It is their own fault that they are no better clothed, nature
having furnished them with ample materials for that purpose. By lining
their seal-skin cloaks with the skins and feathers of aquatic birds;
by making the cloaks themselves larger; and by applying the same
materials to different parts of clothing, they might render their
dress much more warm and comfortable. But while they are doomed to
exist in one of the most inhospitable climates in the globe, they have
not sagacity enough to avail themselves of those means of adding to
the conveniences of life, which Providence has put into their power.
In short, the captain, after having been a witness to so many
varieties of the human race, hath pronounced, that, of all the nations
he had seen, the Pecharas are _the most wretched_.

Notwithstanding the barrenness of the country, it abounds with a
variety of unknown plants, and gave sufficient employment to the
botanists of the Resolution. 'Almost every plant,' says Mr. Forster,
'which we gathered on the rocks, was new to us, and some species were
remarkable for the beauty of their flowers, or their smell.

On the 28th of December, our commander sailed from Christmas Sound,
and proceeded on his voyage, round Cape Horn, through Strait le Maire,
to Staten Land. This famous Cape was passed by him on the next day,
when he entered the Southern Atlantic Ocean. In some charts Cape Horn
is laid down as belonging to a small island; but this was neither
confirmed, nor could it be contradicted by our navigators; for several
breakers appeared in the coast, both to the east and west of it, and
the hazy weather rendered every object very indistinct. Though the
summits of some of the hills were rocky, the sides and valleys seemed
covered with a green turf, and wooded in tufts.

In ranging Staten Island, a good port was found, situated three
leagues to the westward of St. John, and in a northern direction. Upon
account of the day on which the discovery of this port was made (being
the 1st of January), Captain Cook gave it the name of New Year's
Harbour. The knowledge of it may be of service to future navigators.
Indeed, it would be more convenient for ships bound to the west, or
round Cape Horn, if its situation would permit them to put to sea with
an easterly and northerly wind. But this inconvenience is not of great
consequence, since these winds are seldom known to be of long
duration. The captain, however, has declared that if he were on a
voyage round Cape Horn to the west, and not in want of wood or water,
or any thing which might make it necessary to put into port, he would
not approach the land at all. By keeping out at sea the currents would
be avoided, which, he was satisfied, would lose their force at ten or
twelve leagues from land, and be totally without influence at a
greater distance.

The extent of Terra del Fuego, and consequently that of the Straits of
Magalhaens, our commander ascertained to be less than has been laid
down by the generality of navigators. Nor was the coast, upon the
whole, found to be so dangerous as has often been represented. The
weather, at the same time, was remarkably temperate.

In one of the little isles near Staten Land, and which had been called
by Captain Cook, New Year's Isles, there was observed a harmony
between the different animals of the place, which is too curious to be
omitted. It seemed as if they had entered into a league not to disturb
each other's tranquillity. The greater part of the sea-coast is
occupied by the sea-lions; the sea-bears take up their abode in the
isle; the shags are posted in the highest cliffs; the penguins fix
their quarters where there is the most easy communication to and from
the sea; and the rest of the birds choose more retired places. All
these animals were occasionally seen to mix together, like domestic
cattle and poultry in a farm-yard, without one attempting to molest
the other. Nay, the captain had often observed the eagles and vultures
sitting on the hills among the shags, while none of the latter,
whether old or young, appeared to be in the least disturbed at their
presence. It may be asked, then, how do these birds of prey live? This
question our commander hath answered, by supposing that they feed on
the carcasses of seals and birds which die by various causes. It is
probable, from the immense quantity of animals with which this isle
abounds, that such carcasses exist in great numbers.

From Staten island, Captain Cook sailed, on the 4th of January, with a
view, in the first place, of discovering that extensive coast, laid
down by Mr. Dalrymple in his chart, in which is the gulf of St.
Sebastian: In order to have all other parts before him, the captain
designed to make the western point of that gulf. As he had some doubt
of the existence of such a coast, this appeared to him the best route
for determining the matter, and for exploring the southern part of
this ocean. When he came to the situations assigned to the different
points of the gulf of St. Sebastian, neither land nor any unequivocal
signs of land were discovered. On the contrary, it was evident, that
there could not be any extensive tract of country in the direction
which had been supposed.

Proceeding in his voyage, land was seen on the 14th, which was at
first mistaken for an island of ice. It was in a manner wholly covered
with snow. From the person by whom it was first discovered, it
obtained the name of Wallis's Island. It is a high rock, of no great
extent, near to which are some rocky islets. Another island, of a
larger compass, on account of the vast number of birds which were upon
it, was called Bird Isle. A more extensive range of country had been
seen for some time which Captain Cook reached on the 17th, and where
he landed, on the same day, in three different places. The head of the
bay, in which he came to shore, was terminated by particular ice
cliffs, of considerable height. Pieces were continually breaking off,
and floating out to sea; and while our navigators were in the bay, a
great fall happened, which made a noise like a cannon. No less savage
and horrible were the inner parts of the country. The wild rocks
raised their summits till they were lost in the clouds, and the
valleys lay covered with everlasting snow. There was not a tree to be
seen, or a shrub found, that was even big enough to make a tooth-pick.
The only vegetation, that was met with, was a coarse strong-bladed
grass, growing in tufts, wild burnet, and a plant like moss, which
sprang from the rocks.

When our commander landed in the bay, he displayed the English
colours; and, under a discharge of small arms, took possession of the
country in his majesty's name. It was not, however, a discovery which
was ever likely to be productive of any considerable benefit. In his
return to the ship, Captain Cook brought with him a quantity of seals
and penguins, which were an acceptable present to the crew; not from
the want of provisions, which were plentiful in every kind, but from a
change of diet. Any sort of fresh meat was preferred by most on board
to salt. The captain himself was now, for the first time, tired of the
salted meats of the ship; and though the flesh of the penguins could
scarcely vie with bullock's liver, its freshness was sufficient to
render it comparatively agreeable to the palate. To the bay in which
he had been, he gave, the name of Possession Bay.

The land in which this bay lies, was at first judged by our navigators
to be part of a great continent. But, upon coasting round the whole
country, it was proved to a demonstration that it was only an island
of seventy leagues in circuit. In honour of his majesty, Captain Cook
called it the Isle of Georgia. It could scarcely have been thought,
that an island of no greater extent than this, situated between the
latitude of fifty-four and fifty-five, should, in a manner, be wholly
covered, many fathoms deep, with frozen snow, in the height of summer.
The sides and summits of the lofty mountains were cased with snow and
ice; and an incredible quantity lay in the valleys. So immense was the
quantity that our commander did not think that it could he the produce
of the island. Some land, therefore, which he had seen at a distance,
induced him to believe, that it might belong to an extensive tract,
and gave him hopes of discovering a continent. In this respect,
however, he was disappointed; but the disappointment did not sit heavy
upon him; since, to judge of the bulk by the apprehended sample, it
would not have been worth the discovery. It was remarkable, that our
voyagers did not see a river, or a stream of fresh water, on the whole
coast of the Isle of Georgia. Captain Cook judged it to be highly
probable, that there are no perennial springs in the country; and that
the interior parts, in consequence of their being much elevated, never
enjoy heat enough to melt the snow in sufficient quantities to produce
a river or stream of water. In sailing round the island, our
navigators were almost continually involved in a thick mist; so that,
for any thing they knew to the contrary, they might be surrounded with
dangerous rocks.

The captain on the 25th of the month, steered from the Isle of
Georgia, and, on the 27th, computed that he was in latitude sixty,
south. Farther than this he did not intend to go, unless some certain
signs of soon meeting with land should be discovered. There was now a
long hollow swell from the west, which was a strong indication that no
land was to be met with in that direction; and hence arose an
additional proof of what has already been remarked, that the extensive
coast laid down in Mr. Dalrymple's chart of the ocean between Africa
and America and the Gulf of St. Sebastian, doth not exist. Not to
mention the various islands which were seen in the prosecution of the
voyage, and the names that were given to them, I shall only advert to
a few of the more material circumstances. On an elevated coast, which
appeared in sight upon the 31st; our commander bestowed the
appellation of the Southern Thule. The reason of his giving it this
name was, that it is the most southern land that had ever yet been
discovered. It is everywhere covered with snow; and displays a surface
of vast height. On this day our voyagers were in no small danger from
a great westerly swell, which set right upon the shore, and threatened
to carry them on the most horrible coast in the world. Happily, the
discovery of a point to the north, beyond which no land could be seen,
relieved them from their apprehensions. To the more distinguished
tracts of country, which were discovered from the 31st of January to
the 6th of February, Captain Cook gave the names of Cape Bristol, Cape
Montagu, Saunder's Isle, Candlemas Isles, and Sandwich's Land. The
last is either a group of islands, or else a point of the continent.
For that there is a tract of land near the pole, which is the source
of most of the ice that is spread over this vast Southern Ocean, was
the captain's firm opinion. He also thought it probable, that this
land must extend farthest to the north, where it is opposite to the
Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Ice had always been found by him
farther to the north in these oceans, than any where else, and this he
judged could not be the case, if there were not land of considerable
extent to the south. However, the greatest part of this southern
continent, if it actually exists, must lie within the polar circle,
where the sea is so encumbered with ice, that the land is rendered
inaccessible. So great is the risk which is run, in examining a coast
in these unknown and icy seas, that our commander, with a modest and
well grounded boldness, could assert, that no man would ever venture
farther than he had done; and that the lands which may lie to the
south will never be explored. Thick fogs, snow storms, intense cold,
and every thing besides, that can render navigation dangerous, must be
encountered; all which difficulties are greatly heightened by the
inexpressibly horrid aspect of the country. It is a country doomed by
nature never once to feet the warmth of the sun's rays, but to lie
buried in everlasting snow and ice. Whatever ports there may be on the
coast, they are almost entirely covered with frozen snow of a vast
thickness. If however, any one of them should be so far open as to
invite a ship into it, she would run the risk of being fixed there for
ever, or of coming out in an ice island. To this it may be added, that
the islands and floats on the coast, the great falls from the ice
cliffs in the port, or a heavy snow storm, attended with a sharp
frost, might be equally fatal.

Nothing could exceed the inclination of Captain Cook, if it had been
practicable, to penetrate farther to the south: but difficulties like
these were not to be surmounted. If he had risked all that had been
done during the voyage, for the sake of discovering and exploring a
coast, which, when discovered and explored, would have answered no end
whatever, or have been of the least use either to navigation or
geography, or indeed to any other science, he would justly have been
charged with inexcusable temerity. He determined, therefore, to alter
his course to the east, and to sail in quest of Bouvet's Land, the
existence of which was yet to be settled. Accordingly, this was the
principal object of his pursuit, from the 6th to the 22nd of the
month. By that day he had run down thirteen degrees of longitude, in
the very latitude assigned for Bouvet's Land. No such land, however,
was discovered; nor did any proofs occur of the existence of Cape
Circumcision. Our commander was at this time no more than two degrees
of longitude from the route he had taken to the south, when be left
the Cape of Good Hope. It would, therefore, have been to no purpose to
proceed any farther to the east in this parallel. But being desirous
of determining the question concerning some land that was supposed to
have been seen more to the south, he directed his course for the
situation in which the discovery of it might be expected. Two days
were spent by him in this pursuit, to no effectual purpose. After
having run over the place where the land was imagined to lie, without
meeting with the least signs of any, it became certain that the ice
islands had deceived our navigators, as well as Mr. Bouvet.

Captain Cook had row made the circuit of the southern ocean in a high
latitude, and traversed it in such a manner as to leave not the least
room for the possibility of there being a continent, unless near the
pole, and out of the reach of navigation. By twice visiting the
tropical sea, he had not only settled the situation of some old
discoveries, but made many new ones; and, indeed, even in that part,
had left little more to be accomplished. The intention of the voyage
had, in every respect, been fully answered, and the southern
hemisphere sufficiently explored. A final end was hereby put to the
searching after a southern continent, which, for nearly two centuries
past had occasionally engrossed the attention of some of the maritime
powers, and had been urged with great ardour by philosophers and
geographers in different ages.

The great purpose of his navigation round the globe being thus
completed, the captain began to direct his views towards England. He
had, indeed, some thoughts of protracting his course a little longer,
for the sake of revisiting the place where the French discovery is
said to be situated. But, upon mature deliberation, he determined to
lay aside his intention. He considered, that if this discovery had
really been made, the end would be as fully answered, as if it had
been done by himself. It could only be an island; and, if a judgment
might be formed from the degree of cold which our voyagers had
experienced in that latitude, it could not be a fertile one. Besides,
our commander would hereby have been kept two months longer at sea,
and that in a tempestuous latitude, with which the ship was not in a
condition to struggle. Her sails and rigging were so much worn, that
something was giving way every hour; and there was nothing left,
either to repair or to replace them. The provisions of the vessel were
in such a state of decay, that they afforded little nourishment, and
the company had been long without refreshments. Indeed, the crew were
yet healthy, and would cheerfully have gone wherever the captain had
judged it proper to lead them; but he was fearful, lest the scurvy
should lay hold of them, at a time, when none of the remedies were
left by which it could be removed. He thought, likewise, that it would
have been cruel in him to have continued the fatigues and hardships
they were perpetually exposed to, longer than was absolutely
necessary. Throughout the whole voyage, they had merited by their
behaviour every indulgence which it was in his power to bestow.
Animated by the conduct of the officers, they had shewn that no
difficulties or dangers which came in their way were incapable of
being surmounted; nor had their activity, courage, and cheerfulness
been in the least abated by the separation from them of their consort
the Adventure.

From all these considerations, which were evidently the dictates of
wisdom and humanity, Captain Cook was induced to spend no longer time
in searching for the French discoveries, but to steer for the Cape of
Good Hope. He determined, however, to direct his course in such a
manner, as to look for the Isles of Denia and Marseveen, which are
laid down in Dr. Halley's variation chart. After sailing in the proper
latitudes from the 25th of February to the 13th of March, no such
islands were discovered. Nothing, indeed, had been seen that could
encourage our voyagers to persevere in a search after them; and much
time could not now be spared, either for the purpose of finding them,
or of proving their non-existence. Every one on board was for good
reasons impatient to get into port. The captain, therefore, could no
longer avoid yielding to the general wishes, and resolving to proceed
to the Cape without further delay.

Soon after our commander had come to this determination, he demanded
of the officers and petty officers, in pursuance of his instructions,
the log books and journals they had kept; which were delivered to him
accordingly, and sealed up for the inspection of the Admiralty. He
enjoined them also, and the whole crew, not to divulge where they had
been, till they were permitted to do so by their lordships; an
injunction, a compliance with which might probably be rendered
somewhat difficult, from the natural tendency there is in men, to
relate the extraordinary enterprises and adventures wherein they have
been concerned.

As the Resolution approached towards the Cape of Good Hope, she fell
in first with a Dutch East Indiaman from Bengal, commanded by Captain
Bosch; and next with an English Indiaman, being the True Briton, from
China, of which Captain Broadly was the commander. Mr. Bosch very
obligingly offered to our navigators sugar, arrack, and whatever he
had to spare; and Captain Broadly, with the most ready generosity,
sent them fresh provisions, tea, and various articles which could not
fail of being peculiarly acceptable to people in their situation. Even
a parcel of old news-papers furnished no slight gratification to
persons who had so long been deprived of obtaining any intelligence
concerning their country and the state of Europe. From these vessels
Captain Cook received some information with regard to what had
happened to the Adventure after her separation from the Resolution.

On Wednesday, the 22nd of March,(9) he anchored in Table Bay; where he
found several Dutch ships, some French, and the Ceres, an English East
Indiaman, bound directly for England, under the command of Captain
Newte. By this gentleman he sent a copy of the preceding part of his
journal, some charts, and other drawings, to the Admiralty.

(Footnote 9: With our navigators who had sailed round the world,
it was Wednesday, the 22nd of March; but at the Cape of Good Hope
it was Tuesday the 21st.)

During the circumnavigation of the globe, from the period of our
commander's leaving the Cape of Good Hope to his return to it again,
he had sailed no less than twenty thousand leagues. This was an extent
of voyage nearly equal to three times the equatorial circumference of
the earth, and which had never been accomplished before, by any ship,
in the same compass of duration. In such a case, it could not be a
matter of surprise, that the rigging and sails of the Resolution
should be essentially damaged, and even worn out, and yet, in all this
great run, which had been made in every latitude between nine and
seventy-one, she did not spring either lowmast, topmast, lower or
topsail yard; nor did she so much as break a lower or topmast shroud.
These happy circumstances were owing to the good properties of the
vessel, and the singular care and abilities of her officers.

On the remainder of the voyage it is not necessary to enlarge. Though
it was conducted with the same attention to navigation and geography,
and with the same sagacity in marking whatever was worthy of
observation, nevertheless, as it was not employed in traversing
unknown seas, or in discovering countries that had not been heard of
before, it may be sufficient briefly to mention the places at which
Captain Cook touched before his arrival in England. The repairs of the
ship having been completed, and the necessary stores gotten on board,
together with a fresh supply of provisions and water, he left the Cape
of Good Hope on the 27th of April, and reached the Island of St.
Helena on the 15th of May. Here he staid till the 21st, when he sailed
for the Island of Ascension, where he anchored on the 28th. From this
place he directed his course, on the 31st, for the Island of Fernando
de Noronha, at which he arrived on the 9th of June.

In the progress of the voyage, our commander made an experiment upon
the still for procuring fresh water; and the result of the trial was,
that the invention is useful upon the whole, but that to trust
entirely to it would by no means be advisable. Indeed, provided there
is not a scarcity of fuel, and the coppers are good, as much water may
be obtained as will support life; but no efforts will be able to
procure a quantity sufficient for the preservation of health,
especially in hot climates. Captain Cook was convinced by experience,
that nothing contributes more to the health of seamen, than having
plenty of water.

On the 14th of July, the captain came to anchor in the Bay of Fayal,
one of the Azores islands. His sole design in stopping here was to
give Mr. Wales an opportunity of finding the rate of the watch, that
hereby he might be enabled to fix the longitude of these island with
the greater degree of certainty. No sooner, therefore, had our
commander anchored, than he sent an officer to wait on the English
consul, and to acquaint the governor with the arrival of our
navigators, requesting his permission for Mr. Wales to make
observations on shore, for the purpose now mentioned. Mr. Dent, who
then acted as consul, not only obtained this permission, but
accommodated Mr. Wales with a convenient place in his garden, to set
up his instruments.

This object being accomplished, Captain Cook proceeded on the 19th,
with all expedition for England. On the 30th of the same month, he
anchored at Spithead, and landed at Portsmouth; having been absent
from Great Britain three years and eighteen days, in which time, and
under all changes of climate, he had lost but four men, and only one
of them by sickness.

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The able manner in which Captain Cook had conducted the precedingvoyage, the discoveries he had made, and his complete determination ofthe grand point he had been sent to ascertain, justly and powerfullyrecommended him to the protection and encouragement of all those whohad patronized the undertaking. No alterations had occurred, duringhis absence, in the presidency of the admiralty department. The noblelord, whose extensive views had taken such a lead in the plans ofnavigation and discovery, still continued at the head of that board;and it could not be otherwise than a high satisfaction to him, that soextraordinary a degree of success had attended
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The manner in which Lieutenant Cook had performed his circumnavigationof the globe justly entitled him to the protection of government andthe favour of his sovereign. Accordingly, he was promoted to be acommander in his majesty's navy, by commission bearing date on the29th of August, 1771. Mr. Cook, on this occasion, from a certainconsciousness of his own merit, wished to have been appointed a postcaptain. But the Earl of Sandwich, who was now at the head of theAdmiralty board, though he had the greatest regard for our navigator,could not concede to his request, because a compliance with it wouldhave been inconsistent with
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