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God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 6. The Tree Of Life God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 6. The Tree Of Life

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 6. The Tree Of Life
CHAPTER VI. THE TREE OF LIFEAtheism denies knowledge of a God of any kind. Pantheism and Theism alike profess to give us a God, but they alike fail to perform what they have promised. We can know nothing of the God they offer us, for not even do they themselves profess that any of our senses can be cognisant (sic) of him. They tell us that he is a personal God, but that he has no material person. This is disguised Atheism. What we want is a Personal God, the glory of whose Presence can be made in part evident to... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1865

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 5. Orthodox Theism God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 5. Orthodox Theism

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 5. Orthodox Theism
CHAPTER V. ORTHODOX THEISMWe have seen that Pantheism fails to satisfy, inasmuch as it requires us to mean something different by the word "God" from what we have been in the habit of meaning. I have already said-I fear, too often-that no conception of God can have any value or meaning for us which does not involve his existence as an independent Living Person of ineffable wisdom and power, vastness, and duration both in the past and for the future. If such a Being as this can be found existing and made evident, directly or indirectly, to human senses, there is... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 923

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 4. Pantheism God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 4. Pantheism

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 4. Pantheism
CHAPTER IV. PANTHEISMThe earlier Pantheists were misled by the endeavour (sic) to lay hold of two distinct ideas, the one of which was a reality that has since been grasped and is of inestimable value, the other a phantom which has misled all who have followed it. The reality is the unity of Life, the oneness of the guiding and animating spirit which quickens animals and plants, so that they are all the outcome and expression of a common mind, and are in truth one animal; the phantom is the endeavour (sic) to find the origin of things, to reach the... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 2410

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 3. Pantheism God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 3. Pantheism

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 3. Pantheism
CHAPTER III. PANTHEISMTHE Rev. J. H. Blunt, in his "Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, etc.," defines Pantheists as "those who hold that God is everything, and everything is God." If it is granted that the value of words lies in the definiteness and coherency of the ideas that present themselves to us when the words are heard or spoken-then such a sentence as "God is everything and everything is God" is worthless. For we have so long associated the word "God" with the idea of a Living Person, who can see, hear, will, feel pleasure, displeasure, etc., that we cannot think of... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1060

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 2. Common Ground God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 2. Common Ground

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 2. Common Ground
CHAPTER II. COMMON GROUNDI HAVE now, perhaps, sufficiently proved my sympathy with the reluctance felt by many to tolerate discussion upon such a subject as the existence and nature of God. I trust that I may have made the reader feel that he need fear no sarcasm or levity in my treatment of the subject which I have chosen. I will, therefore, proceed to sketch out a plan of what I hope to establish, and this in no doubtful or unnatural sense, but by attaching the same meanings to words as those which we usually attach to them, and with the... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1835

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 1. Introduction God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 1. Introduction

God The Known And God The Unknown - Chapter 1. Introduction
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTIONMANKIND has ever been ready to discuss matters in the inverse ratio of their importance, so that the more closely a question is felt to touch the hearts of all of us, the more incumbent it is considered upon prudent people to profess that it does not exist, to frown it down, to tell it to hold its tongue, to maintain that it has long been finally settled, so that there is now no question concerning it. So far, indeed, has this been carried through all time past that the actions which are most important to us, such as... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1012

God The Known And God The Unknown - Prefatory Note God The Known And God The Unknown - Prefatory Note

God The Known And God The Unknown - Prefatory Note
"GOD the Known and God the Unknown" first appeared in the form of a series of articles which were published in "The Examiner" in May, June, and July, 1879. Samuel Butler subsequently revised the text of his work, presumably with the intention of republishing it, though he never carried the intention into effect. In the present edition I have followed his revised version almost without deviation. I have, however, retained a few passages which Butler proposed to omit, partly because they appear to me to render the course of his argument clearer, and partly because they contain characteristic thoughts and expressions... Nonfictions - Post by : Esther_Bowen - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1449

Life And Habit - Appendix--Author's Addenda Life And Habit - Appendix--Author's Addenda

Life And Habit - Appendix--Author's Addenda
{2} But I may say in passing that though articulate speech and the power to maintain the upright position come much about the same time, yet the power of making gestures of more or less significance is prior to that of walking uprightly, and therefore to that of speech. Not only is gesticulation the earlier faculty in the individual, but it was so also in the history of our race. Our semi-simious ancestors could gesticulate long before they could talk articulately. It is significant of this that gesture is still found easier than speech even by adults, as may... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 2155

Life And Habit - Chapter 15. Concluding Remarks Life And Habit - Chapter 15. Concluding Remarks

Life And Habit - Chapter 15. Concluding Remarks
CHAPTER XV. CONCLUDING REMARKSHere, then, I leave my case, though well aware that I have crossed the threshold only of my subject. My work is of a tentative character, put before the public as a sketch or design for a, possibly, further endeavour, in which I hope to derive assistance from the criticisms which this present volume may elicit. Such as it is, however, for the present I must leave it. We have seen that we cannot do anything thoroughly till we can do it unconsciously, and that we cannot do anything unconsciously till we can do it thoroughly;... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1386

Life And Habit - Chapter 14. Mr. Mivart And Mr. Darwin Life And Habit - Chapter 14. Mr. Mivart And Mr. Darwin

Life And Habit - Chapter 14. Mr. Mivart And Mr. Darwin
CHAPTER XIV. MR. MIVART AND MR. DARWIN"A distinguished zoologist, Mr. St. George Mivart," writes Mr. Darwin, "has recently collected all the objections which have ever been advanced by myself and others against the theory of natural selection, as propounded by Mr. Wallace and myself, and has illustrated them with admirable art and force ("Natural Selection," p. 176, ed. 1876). I have already referred the reader to Mr. Mivart's work, but quote the above passage as showing that Mr. Mivart will not, probably, be found to have left much unsaid that would appear to make against Mr. Darwin's theory. It... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1767

Life And Habit - Chapter 13. Lamarck And Mr. Darwin Life And Habit - Chapter 13. Lamarck And Mr. Darwin

Life And Habit - Chapter 13. Lamarck And Mr. Darwin
CHAPTER XIII. LAMARCK AND MR. DARWINIt will have been seen that in the preceding pages the theory of evolution, as originally propounded by Lamarck, has been more than once supported, as against the later theory concerning it put forward by Mr. Darwin, and now generally accepted. It is not possible for me, within the limits at my command, to do anything like justice to the arguments that may be brought forward in favour of either of these two theories. Mr. Darwin's books are at the command of every one; and so much has been discovered since Lamarck's day, that if... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1716

Life And Habit - Chapter 12. Instincts Of Neuter Insects Life And Habit - Chapter 12. Instincts Of Neuter Insects

Life And Habit - Chapter 12. Instincts Of Neuter Insects
CHAPTER XII. INSTINCTS OF NEUTER INSECTSIn this chapter I will consider, as briefly as possible, the strongest argument that I have been able to discover against the supposition that instinct is chiefly due to habit. I have said "the strongest argument;" I should have said, the only argument that struck me as offering on the face of it serious difficulties. Turning, then, to Mr. Darwin's chapter on instinct ("Natural Selection," ed. 1876, p. 205), we find substantially much the same views as those taken at a later date by M. Ribot, and referred to in the preceding chapter. Mr.... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1033

Life And Habit - Chapter 11. Instinct As Inherited Memory Life And Habit - Chapter 11. Instinct As Inherited Memory

Life And Habit - Chapter 11. Instinct As Inherited Memory
CHAPTER XI. INSTINCT AS INHERITED MEMORYI have already alluded to M. Ribot's work on "Heredity," from which I will now take the following passages. M. Ribot writes:- "Instinct is innate, i.e., ANTERIOR TO ALL INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCE." This I deny on grounds already abundantly apparent; but let it pass. "Whereas intelligence is developed slowly by accumulated experience, instinct is perfect from the first" ("Heredity," p. 14). Obviously the memory of a habit or experience will not commonly be transmitted to offspring in that perfection which is called "instinct," till the habit or experience has been repeated in several generations with more or... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 2549

Life And Habit - Chapter 10. What We Should Expect To Find... Life And Habit - Chapter 10. What We Should Expect To Find...

Life And Habit - Chapter 10. What We Should Expect To Find...
CHAPTER X. WHAT WE SHOULD EXPECT TO FIND IF DIFFERENTIATIONS OF STRUCTURE AND INSTINCT ARE MAINLY DUE TO MEMORYTo repeat briefly;--we remember best our last few performances of any given kind, and our present performance is most likely to resemble one or other of these; we only remember our earlier performances by way of residuum; nevertheless, at times, some older feature is liable to reappear. We take our steps in the same order on each successive occasion, and are for the most part incapable of changing that order. The introduction of slightly new elements into our manner is attended with benefit;... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 480

Life And Habit - Chapter 6. Personal Identity--(continued) Life And Habit - Chapter 6. Personal Identity--(continued)

Life And Habit - Chapter 6. Personal Identity--(continued)
CHAPTER VI. PERSONAL IDENTITY--(Continued)How arbitrary current notions concerning identity really are, may perhaps be perceived by reflecting upon some of the many different phases of reproduction. Direct reproduction in which a creation reproduces another, the facsimile, or nearly so, of itself may perhaps occur among the lowest forms of animal life; but it is certainly not the rule among beings of a higher order. A hen lays an egg, which egg becomes a chicken, which chicken, in the course of time, becomes a hen. A moth lays an egg, which egg becomes a caterpillar, which caterpillar, after going through several stages,... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 2544

Life And Habit - Chapter 5. Personal Identity Life And Habit - Chapter 5. Personal Identity

Life And Habit - Chapter 5. Personal Identity
CHAPTER V. PERSONAL IDENTITY"Strange difficulties have been raised by some," says Bishop Butler, "concerning personal identity, or the sameness of living agents as implied in the notion of our existing now and hereafter, or indeed in any two consecutive moments." But in truth it is not easy to see the strangeness of the difficulty, if the words either "personal" or "identity" are used in any strictness. Personality is one of those ideas with which we are so familiar that we have lost sight of the foundations upon which it rests. We regard our personality as a simple definite whole;... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 2328

Life And Habit - Chapter 4. Application Of The Foregoing Principles... Life And Habit - Chapter 4. Application Of The Foregoing Principles...

Life And Habit - Chapter 4. Application Of The Foregoing Principles...
CHAPTER IV. APPLICATION OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES TO ACTIONS AND HABITS ACQUIRED BEFORE BIRTHBut if we once admit the principle that consciousness and volition have a tendency to vanish as soon as practice has rendered any habit exceedingly familiar, so that the mere presence of an elaborate but unconscious performance shall carry with it a presumption of infinite practice, we shall find it impossible to draw the line at those actions which we see acquired after birth, no matter at how early a period. The whole history and development of the embryo in all its stages forces itself on our... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1426

Life And Habit - Chapter 3. Application Of Foregoing Chapters... Life And Habit - Chapter 3. Application Of Foregoing Chapters...

Life And Habit - Chapter 3. Application Of Foregoing Chapters...
CHAPTER III. APPLICATION OF FOREGOING CHAPTERS TO CERTAIN HABITS ACQUIRED AFTER BIRTH WHICH ARE COMMONLY CONSIDERED INSTINCTIVE.What is true of knowing is also true of willing. The more intensely we will, the less is our will deliberate and capable of being recognised as will at all. So that it is common to hear men declare under certain circumstances that they had no will, but were forced into their own action under stress of passion or temptation. But in the more ordinary actions of life, we observe, as in walking or breathing, that we do not will anything utterly... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1387

Life And Habit - Chapter 2. Conscious And Unconscious Knowers... Life And Habit - Chapter 2. Conscious And Unconscious Knowers...

Life And Habit - Chapter 2. Conscious And Unconscious Knowers...
CHAPTER II. CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS KNOWERS--THE LAW AND GRACEIn this chapter we shall show that the law, which we have observed to hold as to the vanishing tendency of knowledge upon becoming perfect, holds good not only concerning acquired actions or habits of body, but concerning opinions, modes of thought, and mental habits generally, which are no more recognised as soon as firmly fixed, than are the steps with which we go about our daily avocations. I am aware that I may appear in the latter part of the chapter to have wandered somewhat beyond the limits of my subject,... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 1071

Life And Habit - Chapter 1. On Certain Acquired Habits Life And Habit - Chapter 1. On Certain Acquired Habits

Life And Habit - Chapter 1. On Certain Acquired Habits
CHAPTER I. ON CERTAIN ACQUIRED HABITSIt will be our business in the following chapters to consider whether the unconsciousness, or quasi-unconsciousness, with which we perform certain acquired actions, would seem to throw any light upon Embryology and inherited instincts, and otherwise to follow the train of thought which the class of actions above-mentioned would suggest; more especially in so far as they appear to bear upon the origin of species and the continuation of life by successive generations, whether in the animal or vegetable kingdoms. In the outset, however, I would wish most distinctly to disclaim for these pages the smallest... Nonfictions - Post by : azaus - Date : May 2012 - Author : Samuel Butler - Read : 3140