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Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Appendices Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Appendices

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Appendices
I have brought together in these last pages a few notes, which were not properly to be incorporated with the text, and which, at the bottom of pages, checked the reader's attention to the main argument. They contain, however, several statements to which I wish to be able to refer, or have already referred, in other of my books, so that I think right to preserve them. APPENDIX I.--(p. 22.) The greatest of all economists are those most opposed to the doctrine of "laissez faire," namely, the fortifying virtues, which the wisest men of all time have arranged under the general... Essays - Post by : mswahili - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2943

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 6. Mastership Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 6. Mastership

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 6. Mastership
CHAPTER VI. MASTERSHIP136. As in all previous discussions of our subject, we must study the relation of the commanding rich to the obeying poor in its simplest elements, in order to reach its first principles. The simplest state of it, then, is this:(78) a wise and provident person works much, consumes little, and lays by a store; an improvident person works little, consumes all his produce, and lays by no store. Accident interrupts the daily work, or renders it less productive; the idle person must then starve, or be supported by the provident one, who, having him thus at his mercy,... Essays - Post by : mswahili - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2206

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 5. Government Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 5. Government

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 5. Government
CHAPTER V. GOVERNMENT106. It remains for us, as I stated in the close of the last chapter, to examine first the principles of government in general, and then those of the government of the Poor by the Rich. The government of a state consists in its customs, laws, and councils, and their enforcements. I. CUSTOMS. As one person primarily differs from another by fineness of nature, and, secondarily, by fineness of training, so also, a polite nation differs from a savage one, first, by the refinement of its nature, and secondly by the delicacy of its customs. In the completeness of... Essays - Post by : mswahili - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1805

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 4. Commerce Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 4. Commerce

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 4. Commerce
CHAPTER IV. COMMERCE95. As the currency conveys right of choice out of many things in exchange for one, so Commerce is the agency by which the power of choice is obtained; so that countries producing only timber can obtain for their timber silk and gold; or, naturally producing only jewels and frankincense, can obtain for them cattle and corn. In this function, commerce is of more importance to a country in proportion to the limitations of its products, and the restlessness of its fancy;--generally of greater importance towards Northern latitudes. 96. Commerce is necessary, however, not only to exchange local products,... Essays - Post by : mswahili - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2891

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 3. Coin-Keeping Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 3. Coin-Keeping

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 3. Coin-Keeping
CHAPTER III. COIN-KEEPING68. It will be seen by reference to the last chapter that our present task is to examine the relation of holders of store to holders of currency; and of both to those who hold neither. In order to do this, we must determine on which side we are to place substances such as gold, commonly known as bases of currency. By aid of previous definitions the reader will now be able to understand closer statements than have yet been possible. 69. _The currency of any country consists of every document acknowledging debt, which is transferable in the country._(33)... Essays - Post by : mswahili - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1529

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 2. Store-Keeping Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 2. Store-Keeping

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 2. Store-Keeping
CHAPTER II. STORE-KEEPING31. The first chapter having consisted of little more than definition of terms, I purpose, in this, to expand and illustrate the given definitions. The view which has here been taken of the nature of wealth, namely, that it consists in an intrinsic value developed by a vital power, is directly opposed to two nearly universal conceptions of wealth. In the assertion that value is primarily intrinsic, it opposes the idea that anything which is an object of desire to numbers, and is limited in quantity, so as to have rated worth in exchange, may be called, or virtually... Essays - Post by : mswahili - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 644

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 1. Definitions Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 1. Definitions

Munera Pulveris: Six Essays On The Elements Of Political Economy - Chapter 1. Definitions
CHAPTER I. DEFINITIONS1. As domestic economy regulates the acts and habits of a household, Political economy regulates those of a society or State, with reference to the means of its maintenance. Political economy is neither an art nor a science; but a system of conduct and legislature, founded on the sciences, directing the arts, and impossible, except under certain conditions of moral culture. 2. The study which lately in England has been called Political Economy is in reality nothing more than the investigation of some accidental phenomena of modern commercial operations, nor has it been true in its investigation even of... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1070

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 8. The Law Of Consistency The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 8. The Law Of Consistency

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 8. The Law Of Consistency
It is to be remembered, in the next place, that while contrast exhibits the _characters of things, it very often neutralises or paralyses their _power_. A number of white things may be shown to be clearly white by opposition of a black thing, but if you want the full power of their gathered light, the black thing may be seriously in our way. Thus, while contrast displays things, it is unity and sympathy which employ them, concentrating the power of several into a mass. And, not in art merely, but in all the affairs of life, the wisdom of man is... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 3563

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 7. The Law Of Interchange The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 7. The Law Of Interchange

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 7. The Law Of Interchange
Closely connected with the law of contrast is a law which enforces the unity of opposite things, by giving to each a portion of the character of the other. If, for instance, you divide a shield into two masses of colour, all the way down--suppose blue and white, and put a bar, or figure of an animal, partly on one division, partly on the other, you will find it pleasant to the eye if you make the part of the animal blue which comes upon the white half, and white which comes upon the blue half. This is done in heraldry,... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2543

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 6. The Law Of Contrast The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 6. The Law Of Contrast

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 6. The Law Of Contrast
Of course the character of everything is best manifested by Contrast. Rest can only be enjoyed after labour; sound, to be heard clearly, must rise out of silence; light is exhibited by darkness, darkness by light; and so on in all things. Now in art every colour has an opponent colour, which, if brought near it, will relieve it more completely than any other; so, also, every form and line may be made more striking to the eye by an opponent form or line near them; a curved line is set off by a straight one, a massy form by a... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 761

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 5. The Law Of Radiation The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 5. The Law Of Radiation

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 5. The Law Of Radiation
(Illustration: FIG. 40.) We have hitherto been concerned only with the binding of our various objects into beautiful lines or processions. The next point we have to consider is, how we may unite these lines or processions themselves, so as to make groups of _them_. Now, there are two kinds of harmonies of lines. One in which, moving more or less side by side, they variously, but evidently with consent, retire from or approach each other, intersect or oppose each other: currents of melody in music, for different voices, thus approach and cross, fall and rise, in harmony; so the waves... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2085

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 4. The Law Of Curvature The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 4. The Law Of Curvature

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 4. The Law Of Curvature
There is, however, another point to be noticed in this bridge of Turner's. Not only does it slope away unequally at its sides, but it slopes in a gradual though very subtle curve. And if you substitute a straight line for this curve (drawing one with a rule from the base of the tower on each side to the ends of the bridge, in Fig. 34., and effacing the curve), you will instantly see that the design has suffered grievously. You may ascertain, by experiment, that all beautiful objects whatsoever are thus terminated by delicately curved lines, except where the straight... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 971

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 3. The Law Of Continuity The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 3. The Law Of Continuity

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 3. The Law Of Continuity
Another important and pleasurable way of expressing unity is by giving some orderly succession to a number of objects more or less similar. And this succession is most interesting when it is connected with some gradual change in the aspect or character of the objects. Thus the succession of the pillars of a cathedral aisle is most interesting when they retire in perspective, becoming more and more obscure in distance; so the succession of mountain promontories one behind another, on the flanks of a valley; so the succession of clouds, fading farther and farther towards the horizon; each promontory and each... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1137

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 2. The Law Of Repetition The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 2. The Law Of Repetition

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - 2. The Law Of Repetition
Another important means of expressing unity is to mark some kind of sympathy among the different objects, and perhaps the pleasantest, because most surprising, kind of sympathy, is when one group imitates or repeats another; not in the way of balance or symmetry, but subordinately, like a far-away and broken echo of it. Prout has insisted much on this law in all his writings on composition; and I think it is even more authoritatively present in the minds of most great composers than the law of principality. It is quite curious to see the pains that Turner sometimes takes to echo... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2371

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 10 The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 10

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 10
EXERCISE XLay a coat of the blue, prepared as usual, over a whole square of paper. Let it dry. Then another coat over four-fifths of the square, or thereabouts, leaving the edge rather irregular than straight, and let it dry. Then another coat over three-fifths; another over two-fifths; and the last over one-fifth; so that the square may present the appearance of gradual increase in darkness in five bands, each darker than the one beyond it. Then, with the brush rather dry (as in the former exercise, when filling up the interstices), try, with small touches, like those used in the... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1676

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 9 The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 9

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 9
EXERCISE IXPrepare your colour as before directed. Take a brush full of it, and strike it on the paper in any irregular shape; as the brush gets dry sweep the surface of the paper with it as if you were dusting the paper very lightly; every such sweep of the brush will leave a number of more or less minute interstices in the colour. The lighter and faster every dash the better. Then leave the whole to dry, and as soon as it is dry, with little colour in your brush, so that you can bring it to a fine point,... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2481

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 8 The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 8

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 8
EXERCISE VIIIGo out into your garden, or into the road, and pick up the first round or oval stone you can find, not very white, nor very dark; and the smoother it is the better, only it must not _shine_. Draw your table near the window, and put the stone, which I will suppose is about the size of _a in Fig. 5. (it had better not be much larger), on a piece of not very white paper, on the table in front of you. Sit so that the light may come from your left, else the shadow of the pencil... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1917

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 7 The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 7

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 7
EXERCISE VIIGet a shilling cake of Prussian blue. Dip the end of it in water so as to take up a drop, and rub it in a white saucer till you cannot rub much more, and the colour gets dark, thick, and oily-looking. Put two teaspoonfuls of water to the colour you have rubbed down, and mix it well up with a camel's-hair brush about three quarters of an inch long. Then take a piece of smooth, but not glossy, Bristol board or pasteboard; divide it, with your pencil and rule, into squares as large as those of the very largest... Essays - Post by : plethora - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 2781

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 6 The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 6

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 6
EXERCISE VIChoose any tree that you think pretty, which is nearly bare of leaves, and which you can see against the sky, or against a pale wall, or other light ground: it must not be against strong light, or you will find the looking at it hurts your eyes; nor must it be in sunshine, or you will be puzzled by the lights on the boughs. But the tree must be in shade; and the sky blue, or grey, or dull white. A wholly grey or rainy day is the best for this practice. You will see that _all the boughs... Essays - Post by : willytan - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 3357

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 5 The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 5

The Elements Of Drawing In Three Letters To Beginners - Exercise 5
EXERCISE V(Illustration: FIG. 3.) When you can manage to tint and gradate tenderly with the pencil point, get a good large alphabet, and try to _tint the letters into shape with the pencil point. Do not outline them first, but measure their height and extreme breadth with the compasses, as _a b_, _a c_, Fig. 3., and then scratch in their shapes gradually; the letter A, enclosed within the lines, being in what Turner would have called a "state of forwardness." Then, when you are satisfied with the shape of the letter, draw pen and ink lines firmly round the tint,... Essays - Post by : willytan - Date : May 2012 - Author : John Ruskin - Read : 1247